336+ BC timelines ⊕

⊕ 336+BC Timelines


IN A BLINK… Alexander conquers, and the hope of one shared identity is exchanged for the individuals appetites of power.



TIMELINES FROM 336 BC to 30 AD ARE GROUPED  BY POLITICAL CONQUEST, AND DUE TO THE EXPLODING AMOUNT OF HISTORY AVAILABLE – THIS STORY IS FOCUSED ON JERUSALEM AS OUTLINED BY DANIEL (CAPTIVE OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR AND PRESIDENT OF BABYLON UNDER DARIUS I):

Beginning of Daniel 11 and 12 outlining history up to Joshua, the ChosenOne
589BC (pre-Daniel); Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem

Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. ... After the fall of Jerusalem, the Babylonian general, Nebuzaraddan, was sent to complete its destruction. Jerusalem was plundered, and Solomon's Temple was destroyed. Most of the elite were taken into captivity in Babylon.

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_(587_BC)

530-464 BC - Dan 11:1-2 (Sept 530BC); Persian Kings; NOW:Cyrus, FOUR:Cambyses, Bardiya, Darius(9/522BC), Xerxes(10/486BC) stirring against Greece (Darius with Cyrus the Mede before attacking Sythians)

Dan 11. 1; And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him.

Dan 11. 2; “And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings shall arise in Persia, and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them. And when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.

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Three more kings would arise in Persia after Cyrus
...Cambyses [530–522 b.c.],
...Bardiya [522], and
...Darius I Hystaspes [522–486]), and
then a fourth, who would be richer and more powerful than the others and would enter into conflict with Greece.
.. This fourth king was Xerxes I (486–464 b.c.), who invaded Greece, only to be defeated at the Battle of Salamis (480).

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Herodotus’ Account
Ten years after subduing the Babylonians in 539 BCE, Cyrus turned his attention towards the northeastern part of the empire to bring “the Massagetae under his dominion. Now the Massagetae are said to be a great and warlike nation, dwelling eastward, toward the rising of the sun, beyond the river Araxes, and opposite the Issedonians. By many they are regarded as a Scythian race.”

Cyrus, seeing that had two options to consider, took the diplomatic approach first by sending ambassadors to Queen Tomyris, Massagetean ruler “with instructions to court her on his part, pretending that he wished to take her to wife.”

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century.

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century. (Public Domain)

As the Persian ambassadors crossed into Massagetae territory and approached Tomyris’ residence, she must have sent envoys of her own out to ask the Persian ambassadors as to why they had come. This was probably to check the men for weapons and question the reason for being there. After telling the Massagetae officials of their mission, it was relayed back to Tomyris. Tomyris, considering what they said, realized that it was “her kingdom, and not herself, that he courted.” Instead of hearing it from the Persian envoys, she “forbade the men to approach.” When the Persian envoys returned and informed Cyrus of her answer, he mustered his forces.

Cyrus lead his forces to the Jaxartes River, “and openly displaying his hostile intentions; set to work to construct a bridge on which his army might cross the river, and began building towers upon the boats which were to be used in the passage.” As the Persians were securing their passageways into Massagetae territory, envoys from Tomyris arrived to present Cyrus with a message which stated:

King of the Medes, cease to press this enterprise, for you cannot know if what you are doing will be of real advantage to you. Be content to rule in peace your own kingdom, and bear to see us reign over the countries that are ours to govern. As, however, I know you will not choose to hearken to this counsel, since there is nothing you less desires than peace and quietness, come now, if you are so mightily desirous of meeting the Massagetae in arms, leave your useless toil of bridge-making; let us retire three days’ march from the river bank, and do you come across with your soldiers; or, if you like better to give us battle on your side the stream, retire yourself an equal distance.

Cyrus considered this offer, called his advisors together, and made the argument before them. They all agreed to let “Tomyris cross the stream, and giving battle on Persian ground.” However not all were game to this idea. Croesus the Lydian, who was present at the meeting of the chiefs, disapproved of this advice, stating:

Now concerning the matter in hand, my judgment runs counter to the judgment of your other counselors. For if you agree to give the enemy entrance into your country, consider what risk is run! Lose the battle, and there with your whole kingdom is lost. For, assuredly, the Massagetae, if they win the fight, will not return to their homes, but will push forward against the states of your empire. Or, if you win the battle, why, then you win far less than if you were across the stream, where you might follow up your victory. For against your loss, if they defeat you on your own ground, must be set theirs in like case. Rout their army on the other side of the river, and you may push at once into the heart of their country. Moreover, were it not disgrace intolerable for Cyrus the son of Cambyses to retire before and yield ground to a woman?

Therefore, Cyrus agreed with Croesus that it would be best to face the Massagetae on their territory. Persian envoys delivered the message to Tomyris, stating “she should retire, and that he would cross the stream.” Tomyris thus moved her forces and awaited the Persian army. While he gathered his forces to cross the river, he named Cambyses II as the next king should Cyrus die.

Tomyris had her son, Spargapises lead a third of the Massagetae towards Cyrus’ forces. Cyrus left a small detachment behind with food and drink to lure the Massagetae, which they took, and then defeated the small Persian detachment and begin to eat and drink. Once the Massagetae became inebriated, the Persian forces fell on the camp and killed many, taking a few prisoners alive, including Tomyris’ son Spargapises. Spargapises, learning of what had happened, committed suicide. Tomyris, upon learning what had happened, considered the tactics of Cyrus as cowardly. Tomyris vowed revenge and Cyrus did not take heed to the warning. Cyrus pushed further into Massagetae territory where he and his forces met up with the Massagetae face to face. There are no details of the battle. One can speculate that the Massagetae won over the Persians using steppe tactics, which one would think Cyrus would have been accustomed to and able to defend against. However, whatever counter tactics Cyrus used, was all for nothing. The Massagetae won the battle, killed Cyrus, and recovered his body from the battlefield.

Queen Tomyris had the head of Cyrus cut from his body, which she dipped in blood as a symbolic act of revenge for her son, but also you could say she was giving Cyrus his fill as well. As to how much of this is truth and how much of this is fiction is up to the reader to decide. Herodotus does seem plausible in his account but he is not the only one.

Like all powerful men facing a boundless enterprise, Cyrus also had the chance to reflect and change his mind; but his hybris did not let him recognize the situation, so that the warning of the messenger of Tomyris to content himself with what he had (1.206.1) remained unheard. In this context, Croesus’s advice to carry the battle beyond the Araxes and to resort to an infamous ruse against the Massagetae proved that he was a fatal advisor (Erbse, 1992). Even a further and final warning against crossing the river left Cyrus unmoved. In a dream, he saw Darius wearing wings which cast a shadow over Asia and Europe (1.209.1). In this way the god not only pointed to the future successor and to the fact that he would be the man to carry Persian supremacy to Europe (Bichler, 1985b, pp. 128 f.), but also to the imminent death of Cyrus. However, the Great King misunderstood the dream and, fearing a revolt by Darius, sent his father Hystaspes to Susa to arrest Darius (1.209.2-5). Thus not only was the future usurper Darius kept alive (Bichler 2000b, p. 266), but the ensuing tribute paid to Cyrus by Hystaspes for having changed the Persians from remaining servants to becoming free men (1.210.2) can be interpreted as an anticipated obituary. Cyrus also ignored the last warning of Tomyris (1.212) that his fate would end in a fearful tragedy. Following a lost battle, his severed head was put into a bag full of blood, that being, according to Herodotus, the most credible variant among several stories about the death of the king (1.214).

Bibliography: See HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

(Robert Rollinger)

Originally Published: December 15, 2003

Last Updated: March 22, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. XII, Fasc. 3, pp. 260-262

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/herodotus-iv

Timeline from Alexander the Great (336BC/Dan.11:3) through Seleucis II losing the kingdom's core, but recovering Babylon (241BC/Dan.11:9)
336BC (Dan 11:3-4); Alexander the Great rule to his death (The Partitioning of Babylon)

Dan 11. 3-4; Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and do as he wills. And as soon as he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to the authority with which he ruled, for his kingdom shall be plucked up and go to others besides these.

281BC (Dan 11:5); Ptolomy Ceraunus kills 2/3rds of Alexander's remaining successors, rules everything except Ptolomy I in Egypt

Dan 11. 5 - “Then the king of the south shall be strong, but one of his princes shall be stronger than he and shall rule, and his authority shall be a great authority."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_Keraunos?wprov=sfla1

Arrian's "The Campaigns of Alexander" from "history of the ancient world"

See Also; biography of Selucis I

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Ptolomy II hired mercenaries and they plotted against him ...so he stranded them in the Nile

In 270 BCE Ptolemy hired 4,000 Gallic mercenaries (who in 279 BCE under Bolgios killed his half-brother; Ptolemy Keraunos). According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted “to seize Egypt,” and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile River where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”

253BC (Dan 11:6); Antiochus II marries Berenise I - sis of Ptolomy III (ending 2nd SW); both killed by Laodice I (Antiochus II first wife).

Dan 11. 6; At the end of years they will join themselves together; and the daughter of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make an agreement; but she will not retain the strength of her arm. He will also not stand, nor will his arm; but she will be given up, with those who brought her, and he who became the father of her, and he who strengthened her in those times.

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About this time, Antiochus II made peace with Ptolemy II Philadelphus, ending the Second Syrian War. Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice I and exiled her to Ephesus. To seal the treaty, he married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice and received an enormous dowry.

During her stay in Ephesus, Laodice I continued numerous intrigues to become queen again. By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, in Antioch to live again with Laodice I in Asia Minor. Laodice I took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and their infant son. Antiochus was buried in the Belevi Mausoleum.

Laodice I then proclaimed Seleucus II as King. With his cousin-wife Laodice I, Antiochus had two sons: Seleucus II Callinicus, Antiochus Hierax and three daughters: Apama, Stratonice of Cappadocia and Laodice.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_II_Theos?wprov=sfla1

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In 246 BC, when Ptolemy died, Antiochus II took up again with his first wife, Laodice. Antiochus died shortly thereafter, many suspect from poisoning. Queen Berenice claimed the regency for her infant son Antiochus however, she and her son were both killed by Laodice. Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel11:6.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_%28Seleucid_queen%29?wprov=sfla1

246BC (Dan 11:7-8); Ptolomy III takes revenge for sister's murder; takes Antioch and riches from Seleucus II - Laodice I enthroned son (3rd S.W.)

Dan 11. 7-8; “And from a branch from her roots one shall arise in his place. He shall come against the army and enter the fortress of the king of the north, and he shall deal with them and shall prevail. He shall also carry off to Egypt their gods with their metal images and their precious vessels of silver and gold, and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north."

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"and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north."
...Third Syrian War (246–241 BC)
...Fourth Syrian War (219–217 BC)
=-= 22 years

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Due to a falling out at the Seleucid court, Ptolemy's eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus was murdered along with her infant son. In response Ptolemy III invaded Syria. During this war, the Third Syrian War, he occupied Antioch and even reached Babylon. In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. From this capture he received fifteen hundred talents of silver, roughly a tenth of his annual income. During his involvement in the Third Syrian War, he managed to regain many Egyptian works of art that had been stolen when the Persians conquered Egypt. While he was away fighting, he left his wife, Berenice II, in charge of the country, but swiftly returned when trouble erupted there. The Ptolemaic kingdom reached the height of its power during this reign.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_III_Euergetes?wprov=sfla1

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Third Syrian War (246–241 BC)

See also: Battle of Andros (246 BC) where Ptolomy had half-brother joined antininous and lost . ..escape of command to Ephisus

Also known as the Laodicean War, the Third Syrian War began with one of the many succession crises that plagued the Hellenistic states. Antiochus II left two ambitious mothers, his repudiated wife Laodice and Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice Syra, in a competition to put their respective sons on the throne. Laodice claimed that Antiochus had named her son heir while on his deathbed, but Berenice argued that her newly born son was the legitimate heir. Berenice asked her brother Ptolemy III, the new Ptolemaic king, to come to Antioch and help place her son on the throne. When Ptolemy arrived, Berenice and her child had been assassinated.

Ptolemy declared war on Laodice's newly crowned son, Seleucus II, in 246 BC, and campaigned with great success (his forces possibly being commanded by Xanthippus of Sparta, aka Xanthippus of Carthage, the mercenary general responsible for defeating a Roman army at Tunis/Bagrades in 255). He won major victories over Seleucus in Syria and Anatolia, briefly occupied Antioch and, as a recent cuneiform discovery proves, even reached Babylon. These victories were marred by the loss of the Cyclades to Antigonus Gonatas in the Battle of Andros. Seleucus had his own difficulties. His domineering mother asked him to grant co-regency to his younger brother, Antiochus Hierax, as well as rule over Seleucid territories in Anatolia. Antiochus promptly declared independence, undermining Seleucus' efforts to defend against Ptolemy.

In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. The Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

...Ptolomy III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_III_Euergetes?wprov=sfla1

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Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel11:6.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_%28Seleucid_queen%29?wprov=sfla1
er's murder; takes Antioch and riches from Seleucus II - Laodice I enthroned son (3rd S.W.)

241BC (Dan 11:9); Seleucis II loses kingdom's core; recovers Babylon

Dan 11. 9; Then the latter shall come into the realm of the king of the south but shall return to his own land.

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Seleucus II Callinicus [ca. 265 - 225 BCE]

Star-crossed son of Antiochus II & his half-sister Laodice, who inherited the Seleucid throne when his mother poisoned his father (246 BCE). In a series of disastrous defeats by the forces of Ptolemy III he lost control of most of the Seleucid empire including the ancestral capitols of Seleucia & Antioch. He escaped capture by retreating to the interior of Asia Minor. But by delegating control of western Asia Minor to his treacherous brother Antiochus Hierax he lost that territory as well. Almost a decade after his humiliating defeat by the forces of his own relatives at Ancyra (235 BCE) he managed to rout his brother but, in a final humiliation, died in a fall from his own horse.

References: Josephus, Against Apion 1.206-207.
Justin, Epitome 27.1-3.
Appian, History of Rome: Syrian Wars 11.66.

Other resources on line:.
- Justin's Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, book 27 - from
J. S. Watson's translation of abridged Latin edition [3rd. c. CE] of Greco-Roman history from 1st c. BCE [posted by Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum]..
- Seleucus II Callinicus - Jona Lendering outlines biographical information & chronology of events [Livius: Articles in Ancient History]..
- Seleucus II Callinicus - entry in Wikipedia's web.

http://virtualreligion.net/iho/seleucus_2.html

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December 246: Ptolemy proceeds to Babylon; he is still there in February 245 (Ptolemy III Chronicle; BCHP 11)
245: Seleucus' sister "Laodice" marries Mithridates II of Pontus; Phrygia is awarded to him as a marriage gift; Pontus supports the Seleucid empire
Ptolemy, still in Babylon, receives tokens of subjection from eastern noblemen
Revolt of Andragoras in Parthia
245, Summer: Seleucus crosses the Taurus to the south, and forces Ptolemy to retreat; Seleucus reconquers Babylonia
Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia attacks the Egyptian possessions in the Aegean (battle of Andros: Egypt loses the Cyclades)
243: Aratus, leader of the Achaean League, supported by Ptolemy, seizes Corinth from its Macedonian garrison; the Ptolemaic possessions in the Aegean are now left alone
Seleucus proceeds to the south, but is defeated
241: End of the Third Syrian War; the Ptolemies have gained the Syrian coast and have lost some of their Aegean possessions

http://www.livius.org/articles/concept/syrian-war-3/

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In 245 BC Ptolemy III had to return to Egypt to deal with a rebellion in the Nile Delta. News of the death of Berenice finally leaked out, and opposition to Ptolemy grew. Seleucus II is said to have crossed the River Taurus in 244 BC, and soon regained the eastern part of what was now his empire. Antioch and Damascus were soon recovered, but Seleuceia in Pieria remained in Egyptian hands at the end of the war.

Egypt was more successful in Asia Minor, where she could use her fleet to good effect. Opposition to her there was led by Seleucus’s half brother Antiochus Hierax (the Hawk), who had been made regent of the Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor when Seleucus returned to Syria. He does not appear to have been particularly effective against the Egyptians, who ended the war in possession of southern Ionia and probably of Caria and Lycia. The exact scale of Egyptian conquests during the Third Syrian War is obscured by our lack of detailed information about the Second Syrian War, making it hard to be sure which places were conquered and which were simply retained.

The war ended in 241. Seleucus probably initiated the peace in order to deal with his many other problems. Antiochus Heirax had set himself up as an independent ruler, and was now claiming the entire empire (the resulting civil war is known as the War of the Brothers). In the east the Bactrian-Sogdian satrapy was in the process of leaving the empire under the rule of the Macedonian satraps, who felt they were better able to cope with nomad invasions if they were independent of a distant power. The vast Seleucid empire was about to shake itself apart.

How to cite this article: Rickard, J (17 June 2007), Third Syrian War, 246-241 BC (Laodicean War), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_syrian_3rd.html

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_syrian_3rd.html

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Accession and invasion

After the death of his father, Antiochus in July 246 BC, Seleucus was proclaimed king by his mother, Laodice in Ephesos, while his father's second wife Queen Berenice declared her son Antiochus king in Antioch. Berenice acted decisively at first, seizing control of most of Syria and Cilicia. However before her brother Ptolemy III, the king of Egypt was able to land and support to her son's claims she was murdered by partisans of Seleucus II and Queen Laodice.

This dynastic feud began the Third Syrian WarPtolemy III, invaded the Seleucid Empire and landing at Seleucia Pieria, accepted the surrender of Syria and Cilicia and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond (though he did not reach as far as Babylon . Ptolemy remained in Syria during the winter of 246-245, while Seleucus sent an expedition by sea to retake the area, only to have it wrecked by storms; not the last time he was to be defeated by bad luck.

Defeat in the Third Syrian war and Anatolia

Seleucus managed to maintain himself in the interior of Asia Minor and made arrangements to shore up his power there. One of his sisters married Mithridates II of Pontus, another married Ariarathes III of Cappadocia and he himself married his cousin Laodice II, by whom he had five children among them: AntiochisSeleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III the Great. Seleucus then appointed his brother Antiochus Hierax as viceroy in Asia Minor and marched against the Ptolemies.

Ptolemy himself returned to Egypt in 245, reputedly taking with him 40,000 talents of gold and the statues of Egyptian gods which had been looted centuries before by the Persians. Seleucus crossed into Babylonia and Mesopotamia first, receiving the loyalty of the empire's Eastern regions and then marched into Syria where he recovered Antioch by 244. This was followed by the recapture of the other major cities of the area and by 242 the interior of Northern Syria had been regained and Seleucus was even able to launch raids into Ptolemaic controlled Syria around Damascus.

Elsewhere the Seleucid's were less successful, in the Aegean the Ptolemies were able to seize control of Ephesos, as well as Ainos and Maroneia in Thrace, and several cities on the Asian side of the Hellespont.

In 241 peace was finally signed, Ptolemy recognised Seleucus as king and the Eleutheros river was once again accepted as boundary between the two empires in Syria. Ptolemy did however retain his conquests in Thrace, Ephesos, and most importantly of all the vital port of Seleucia Pieria. This city contained the tomb of the dynasties founder Seleucus I and controlled much of the trade from Antioch, desire to recover it would prove to be one of the main causes of the outbreak of the Fourth Syrian war in 219 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_II_Callinicus?wprov=sfla1

Timeline from Antiochus III invading Jerusalem (219BC/Dan.11:10) through his death (July-3-187BC/Dan.11:19)
219BC (Dan 11:10); Antiochus III invades [4th Syrian War]

Dan 11.10; “His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall keep coming and overflow and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress."

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Egypt had been significantly weakened by court intrigue and public unrest. The rule of the newly inaugurated Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC) began with the murder of queen-mother Berenice II. The young king quickly fell under the absolute influence of imperial courtiers. His ministers used their absolute power in their own self-interest, to the people's great chagrin.

Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC. He recaptured Seleucia Pieria as well as cities in Phoenicia, amongst them Tyre.
...Rather than promptly invading Egypt, Antiochus waited in Phoenicia for over a year, consolidating his new territories and listening to diplomatic proposals from the Ptolemaic kingdom.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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_____________
previous description
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Antiochus III failure to launch in 1st conquest - didn't lead invasion (only 18 yrs old)
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NOTES:
Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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The young king, under the influence of the minister Hermeias, headed an attack on Ptolemaic Syria instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack against the Ptolemaic empire proved a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster. Only in Asia Minor, where the king's cousin, Achaeus, represented the Seleucid cause, did its prestige recover, driving the Pergamene power back to its earlier limits.

In 221 BC Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed which Polybios attributes in part to his following the advice of Zeuxis rather than Hermeias. The submission of Lesser Media, which had asserted its independence under Artabazanes, followed. Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria (220 BC). Meanwhile, Achaeus himself had revolted and assumed the title of king in Asia Minor. Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow an attack on Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Ptolemaic Syria.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great?wprov=sfla1

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The young king was in the hands of the bad minister Hermeias, and was induced to make an attack on Palestine instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack on Palestine was a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster.

https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclopædia_Britannica/Seleucid_Dynasty

June-22-217BC (Dan 11:11); Ptolomy IV takes Jerusalem back from Antiochus III (end 4th Syrain War at the battle of Raphia), surrender at Gaza

Dan 11.11; Then the king of the south, moved with rage, shall come out and fight against the king of the north. And he shall raise a great multitude, but it shall be given into his hand.

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Meanwhile, Ptolemy's minister Sosibius began recruiting and training an army. He recruited not only from the local Greek population, as Hellenistic armies generally were, but also from the native Egyptians, enrolling at least thirty thousand natives as phalangites. This innovation paid off, but it would eventually have dire consequences for Ptolemaic stability. In the summer of 217 BC, Ptolemy engaged and defeated the long-delayed Antiochus in the Battle of Raphia, the largest battle since the Battle of Ipsus over eighty years earlier.

Ptolemy's victory preserved his control over Coele-Syria, and the weak king declined to advance further into Antiochus' empire, even to retake Seleucia Pieria. The Ptolemaic kingdom would continue to weaken over the following years, suffering from economic problems and rebellion. Nationalist sentiment had developed among the native Egyptians who had fought at Raphia. Confident and well-trained, they broke from Ptolemy in what is known as the Egyptian Revolt, establishing their own kingdom in Upper Egypt which the Ptolemies finally reconquered around 185 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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BATTLE OF RAPHIA
Antiochus routed the Ptolemaic horse posed against him and pursued the fleeing enemy en masse, believing to have won the day, but the Ptolemaic phalanxes eventually drove the Seleucid phalanxes back and soon Antiochus realized that his judgment was wrong. Antiochus tried to ride back, but by the time he rode back, his troops were routed and could no longer be regrouped. The battle had ended.

After the battle, Antiochus wanted to regroup and make camp outside the city of Raphia but most of his men had already found refuge inside and he was thus forced to enter it himself.

Then he marched to Gaza and asked Ptolemy for the customary truce to bury the dead, which he was granted.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raphia?wprov=sfla1

...217BC (Dan 11:12); Ptolomy IV exalted, kills 10,000s & doesn't prevail??? Look at Gaza ???

Dan 11.12; And when the multitude is taken away, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail.

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204BC (Dan 11:13); Antiochus III pact with Philip V (of Macedon) to share Jerusalem/take from 12 year old Ptolomy V [or Ptolomy IV?]

Dan 11.13; For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, greater than the first. And after some years he shall come on with a great army and abundant supplies.

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Antiochus III traveled to Parthia, Batria and even India and made profitable pact with Indian King before making patch with Philip V
----FIND_REFERENCE___

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Antiochus III staged a second invasion of Coele-Syria. He made an agreement with Philip V of Macedon to conquer and share the Ptolemies' non-Egyptian territories, although this alliance did not last long.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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In 205/204 BC the infant Ptolemy V Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus is said (notably by Polybius) to have concluded a secret pact with Philip V of Macedon for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions. Under the terms of this pact, Macedon was to receive the Ptolemaic possessions around the Aegean Sea and Cyrene, while Antiochus would annex Cyprus and Egypt.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great?wprov=sfla1

204BC (Dan 11:14); all rise against Ptolomy V ...try unsuccessfully to "fulfill vision"

Dan 11.14; “In those times many shall rise against the king of the south, and the violent among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfill the vision, but they shall fail.

??? who arose, and what vision???

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Plutarch describes Ptolemy IV as, " was a loose, voluptuous, and effeminate prince,", and again, "besotted with his women and wine". Again that he focused on, "senseless and continuous drinking"

Polybius explains Ptolomy IV actions, "he conducted his reign as if it were a Perpetual Festival, neglected the business of state, made himself difficult to approach, and treated with contempt or indifference those who handled his country's interests abroad."

Upon his father's death, Ptolemy IV poisoned his mother, scalded to his brother to death (his brother was popular with the army). While this type of struggle for power was not foreign to the macedonians, or seleucids back to the Persians and acadians... The royal family in Egypt was an expression of the Sun God. The Father was reborn as the sun, which is why it wasn't gross to marry your family. Each king or pharaoh was the physical holder of the office of god king during their life, and the god-part of the father moved into the sun when the father died ...to kill your mom was to kill your wife (which would not be the first marriage to end in blood), but to kill your brother was to kill your son.... personal note

His government was essentially being run by his mistress Agathoclea , her brother agathocles who Plutarch called "that pimp" and Socibius, one of his advisers. Sociniuss was the man who trained the Egyptians to fight in the ??? Syrian War ... which led to the Egyptian revolt.
--> Ptolomy IV died in 204
--> continuing the standard of government which was almost universally despised, Cecilia's, that pimp agathocles, apparently forged documents to make themselves guardians (or Regents) of the child... a cue that Antiochus IV would exploit to gain power (even though he was actual blood family... Which makes it more justifiable... And all the more cruel).
--> Sosibius died months later, and Agathocles, Agathoclea, and their mother held the power in Egypt.
--> Polybius describes how at this point the mob, led by the army, dragged the family out of the palace into the street. They stripped them naked, and tore them peace from peace in a Savage polybius calls describes, some began to tear them with their teeth, others to stab them, others to gouge out their eyes. As soon as any of them fell, the body was torn limb from limb until they had dismembered them all, for the savagery of the Egyptians is truly appalling when they're of passions have been roused"
...pg 628 in the history of the ancient world

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Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died. Philopator's two leading favorites, Agathocles and Sosibius, fearing that Arsinoe would secure the regency, had her murdered before she heard of her husband's death, thereby securing the regency for themselves. However, in 202 BC, Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, put himself at the head of a revolt. Once Epiphanes was in the hands of Tlepolemus he was persuaded to give a sign that his mother's killers should be killed. The child king gave his consent, it is thought more from fear than anything else, and Agathocles along with several of his supporters were killed by the Alexandrian mob

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

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198BC (Dan 11:15-16a); Antiochus III takes Gaza; Ptolomy's Egyptian war depot [5th SW]

Dan 11.15-16a; Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks and take a well-fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, or even his best troops, for there shall be no strength to stand. But he who comes against him shall do as he wills, and none shall stand before him.

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Ptolemy IV "Philopator" had made Gaza his chief depot of war material; see 5, 68.
--- Antiochus IV destroyed it in B.C. 198 for its loyalty to the King of Egypt.

...this city didn't surrender to Alexander the great

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234%3Abook%3D16%3Achapter%3Dpos%3D826

...book 17 of Polybius is lost

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Shutting himself up within the walls of Sidon, after an ineffectual attempt by Ptolemy to relieve him he was ultimately compelled by famine to surrender (Polybius XIII.1-2, XVI.18-19, 39; Josephus, Antiguities XII.3.3; St. Jerome, and Daniel, XI.15-16).

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Fifth Syrian War (202–195 BC)
See also: Battle of Panium

The death of Ptolemy IV in 204 BC was followed by a bloody conflict over the regency as his heir, Ptolemy V, was just a child.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Ancient Greek: Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Syrian Wars. The Seleucids were led by Antiochus III the Great, while the Ptolemaic army was led by Scopas of Aetolia. The Seleucids won the battle.

The battle was fought near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi), and marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Judea. Some biblical commentators see this battle as being the one referred to in Daniel 11:15, where it says, "Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Panium?wprov=sfla1

198BC (Dan 11:16b-17); Antiochus III takes Jerusalem; gives Cleopatra I to marry Ptolomy V

Dan 11.16b-17; And he shall stand in the glorious land, with destruction in his hand. He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of an agreement and perform them. He shall give him the daughter of women to destroy the kingdom, but it shall not stand or be to his advantage.

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Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon made a pact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions overseas. Philip seized several islands and populated places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the Battle of Panium (198 BC) definitively transferred Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.

Antiochus then concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra I to Epiphanes in marriage (193–192 BC). Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome, Egypt ranged itself with the latter power.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

188BC (Dan 11:18); Roman commander Glabrio (Scipio Asiaticus?) makes Antiochus III sign the Treaty of Apamea at Battle of Magnesia, after three retreats by Antiochus III

Dan 11.18; Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands and shall capture many of them, but a commander shall put an end to his insolence. Indeed, he shall turn his insolence back upon him.

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Philip also supported the Romans against Antiochus III (192-189 BC).

In return for his help when Roman forces under Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus moved through Macedon and Thrace in 190 BC, the Romans forgave the remaining indemnity that he had to pay and his son Demetrius was freed. Philip then focused on consolidating power within Macedon. He reorganised the country's internal affairs and finances, mines were reopened, and a new currency was issued.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_V_of_Macedon?wprov=sfla1

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Antiochus IV's insolence was that he'd bribe (spread

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Prelude
Antiochus III the Great, the Seleucid Emperor, first became involved with Greece when he signed an alliance with King Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC.[1] The treaty stated that Antiochus and Philip would help each other conquer the lands of the young Ptolemaic pharaoh, Ptolemy V.[1]
In 200 BC, Rome first became involved in the affairs of Greece, when two of its allies, Pergamum and Rhodes, who had been fighting Philip in the Cretan War, appealed to the Romans for help.[2] In response to this appeal the Romans sent an army to Greece and attacked Macedon. The Second Macedonian War lasted until 196 BC, and it effectively ended when the Romans and their allies, including the Aetolian League, defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. The treaty's terms forced Philip to pay a war indemnity and become a Roman ally while Rome occupied some areas of Greece.
Meanwhile, Antiochus was fighting the armies of Ptolemy in Coele-Syria in the Fifth Syrian War (201 BC - 195 BC). Antiochus' army crushed the Egyptian army at the Battle of Panium in 201 BC, and by 198 BC, Coele-Syria was in Antiochus' hands.
Antiochus then concentrated on raiding Ptolemaic possessions in Cilicia, Lycia and Caria.[3] While attacking Ptolemy's possessions in Asia Minor, Antiochus sent a fleet to occupy Ptolemy's coastal cities in the area as well as to support Philip.[3] Rhodes, a Roman ally and the strongest naval power in the area became alarmed and sent envoys to Antiochus saying that they would have to oppose him if his fleet passed Chelidonae in Cicilia because they didn't want Philip to receive aid.[4] Antiochus ignored the threat and kept proceeding with his naval movements, but the Rhodians did not act because they had heard that Philip had been defeated at Cynoscephalae and was no longer a threat.[4]
Peace was established in 195 BC with the marriage of Antiochus' daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy. Antiochus' hands were now clear of problems in Asia and he now turned his eyes towards Europe.

Outbreak of the war

Silver coin of Antiochus III
Meanwhile, Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had fought against Rome in the Second Punic War, fled from Carthage to Tyre, and from there he sought refuge at Antiochus' court in Ephesus where the King was deciding what actions to take against Rome.[5]
Because of the continued Roman influence in Greece, the Aetolians, in spite of the philo-Hellenic consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus having just declared Greece "free", now garrisoned Chalcis and Demetrias, which the Romans themselves had argued were key to Macedonia's domination of Greece, and became anti-Roman. They also resented how the Romans had prevented them from reincorporating Echinus and Pharsalus, which had formerly been part of the League, at the end of the Second Macedonian War.[6] In 195 BC, when the Romans decided to invade Sparta, the Aetolians, wanting the Romans to leave Greece, offered to deal with Sparta. However, the Achaean League, not wanting Aetolia's power to grow, refused.[7] The modern historian Erich Gruen has suggested that the Romans may have used the war as an excuse to station a few legions in Greece in order to prevent the Spartans and the Aetolian League from joining the Seleucid King Antiochus III if he invaded Greece.[8]
Having defeated Sparta in 195 BC, the Roman legions under Flamininus left Greece the next year. In 192 BC, a weakened Sparta appealed to the Aetolians for military assistance.[9] The Aetolians responded to this request by sending a unit of 1,000 cavalry.[10] However, after they got there, this force assassinated Nabis, Sparta's last independent ruler, and tried to gain control of Sparta, only to be defeated.[10]

THE MILITARY CONFLICT
Building on anti-Roman sentiment in Greece, particularly among the city-states of the Aetolian League, Antiochus III led an army across the Hellespont planning to "liberate" it. Antiochus and the Aetolian league failed to gain the support of Philip V of Macedon and the Achaean League. The Romans responded to the invasion by sending an army to Greece which defeated Antiochus' army at Thermopylae.
This defeat proved crushing, and Antiochus was forced to retreat from Greece. The Romans under the command of Scipio Asiaticus followed him across the Aegean. The combined Roman-Rhodian fleet defeated the Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal at the Battle of the Eurymedon and at the Battle of Myonessus. After some fighting in Asia Minor, the Seleucids fought against the armies of Rome and Pergamum at Magnesia. The Roman-Pergamese army won the battle, and Antiochus was forced to retreat.
During the journey back to Italy after the victory at Magnesia and the end of the Syrian war, the consul Manlius Vulso ran into trouble near Cypsela in Thrace. His legions and auxiliaries were marching down a long, narrow wooded track when he was attacked by a force of about 10,000-20,000 Thracian tribesmen. They waited until Vulso's van had passed and before the rearguard had come into view to attack and loot the baggage wagons in the middle of the column. When the Roman troops from the van and rear rushed to the center, a disorderly fight ensued and persisted until the Thracians withdrew at dusk. Both sides suffered heavy losses.

THE PEACE OF APAMEA
The battle was disastrous for the Seleucids, and Antiochus was forced to come to terms. Amongst the terms of the Treaty of Apamea, Antiochus had to pay 15,000 talents (450 tonnes/990,000 pounds) of silver as a war indemnity, and he was forced to abandon his territory west of the Taurus Mountains. Rhodes gained control over Caria and Lycia, while the Pergamese gained northern Lycia and all of Antiochus' other territories in Asia Minor.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman–Seleucid_War

July-3-187BC (Dan 11:19); Antiochus III dies robbing from Baal temple.

Dan 11.19; Then he shall turn his face back toward the fortresses of his own land, but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found.

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PER {25 month 3 - B = 3 July} The death of Antiochus III, and accession of Seleucus IV.

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* Read Justin's account
@ #BabylChron_BM.35603'R6-8; Diod_28.3'1, 29.15'1; Strab_16'744;(1.18) Joseph:AJ_12'223; Appian:Syr_66; Just_32.2'1-2;* Porph:Fr_47; +[Euseb]:Chron_253, 263; [Vict]:VirIll_54'4;L +Hieron:Chron_1830; Sulpit_2'19; ExcBarb_46A; +Zonar_9'21;(p327) { CAH_8'351; Green_422.}

http://www.attalus.org/bc2/year187.html#6

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Timeline from Seleucus IV collecting taxes for Rome (178BC/Dan.11:20) through a elderly Roman senator metaphorically bitch slaping Antiochus IV to stop him from conquering all Egypt (168BC/Dan.11:30a)
178BC (Dan 11:20); Seleucus IV collects taxes for Rome (treaty of Apamea), killed by Heliodorus after his Jerusalem collection trip

Dan 11.20; Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an exactor of tribute for the glory of the kingdom. But within a few days he shall be broken, neither in anger nor in battle.

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Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).

He was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an ambitious policy. In an effort to collect money to pay the Romans, he sent his minister Heliodorus to Jerusalem to seize the Jewish temple treasury.

The Bible tells of a prophecy given by a messenger angel in Daniel 11:20 (NLT). The text states that Seleucus "will be remembered as the king who sent a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor." The deuterocanonical lends more to this in 2 Maccabees 3:2-3

On his return from Jerusalem, Heliodorus assassinated Seleucus, and seized the throne for himself.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_IV_Philopator?wprov=sfla1

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In the Apocrypha

Around 178 BC Seleucus sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to collect money to pay the Romans. There may be a reference to this in Daniel 11:20, "He will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor". 2 Maccabees 3:21-28 reports that Heliodorus entered the Temple in Jerusalem in order to take its treasure, but was turned back by three spiritual beings who manifested themselves as human beings .

2 Maccabees 3:34-36 records that Heliodorus received "orders from God" to "proclaim to all men the majesty of God's power" .

It is believed that on his return from Jerusalem, he killed the king and seized the throne for himself; but it was not long before Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the brother of the late king, with the help of the Pergamon monarch, Eumenes II, recovered it.

The Heliodorus stele, a Greek-language inscription of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, is dated to 178 BCE. In this stele, Seleucus informs Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. While this part of the inscription comes from the trade of antiquities, an additional fragment from the same inscription was found in 2005 in an underground basement of a Hellenistic house in Maresha.

Heliodorus in the Arts

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliodorus_%28minister%29?wprov=sfla1

Sept-3-175BC (Dan 11:21); Antiochus IV returned after 1 yr as Rome's prisoner, gets guardianship of Selucis IV's son (the one not taken to Rome), and kills him a few years later ...to become king

Dan 11.21; In his place shall arise a contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given. He shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

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Antiochus was a member of the HellenisticGreek Seleucid dynasty and was the son and potential successor of King Antiochus III, and as such he became a political hostage of the Roman Republic following the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. His older brother Seleucus IV followed his father onto the throne in 187 BC, and Antiochus was exchanged for his nephew Demetrius I Soter (the son and heir of Seleucus). King Seleucus was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus in 175 BC, but Antiochus in turn ousted him. Seleucus' legitimate heir Demetrius I Soter was still a hostage in Rome, so Antiochus seized the throne for himself with the help of King Eumenes II of Pergamum, proclaiming himself co-regent with another son of Seleucus, an infant named Antiochus (whom he then murdered a few years later).

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

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Succession

Antiochus took power after the death of Seleucus Philopator. He had been hostage in Rome following the peace of Apamea in 188 B.C.E. but had recently been exchanged for the son and rightful heir of Seleucus IV, the later Demetrius I of Syria. Taking advantage of this situation, Antiochus was able to proclaim himself as co-regent with another of Seleucus' sons, the infant Antiochus, whose murder he orchestrated a few years later.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes

175BC (Dan 11:22); Jewish brothers buy high priesthood from Antiochus IV

Dan 11.22; Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, even the prince of the covenant.

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When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE,
... Onias III held the office of High Priest in Jerusalem.

To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint or dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed.
...Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead of Onias. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and "received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabees?wprov=sfla1

175-170BC (Dan 11:23); Antiochus IV alliance with Rome & adopts Rome's "appearance-of-shared-power" leadership model

Dan 11.23. And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people.

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Rome asked Antiochus IV for allegiance with Perseus (Macedon). He agreed to have none.
- Livy, "History of Rome" vol6, 42.36. (paraphrase)

Antiochus also tried to interact with common people by appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices, and his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.
REF:
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Antiochus IV Epiphanes
- Polybius 26.10

.

175-170BC (Dan 11:24); takes bids for High Priest to fix Jewish revolts

Dan 11.24; Without warning he shall come into the richest parts of the province, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his fathers' fathers have done, scattering among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time.

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In turn, Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason.
... Menelaus had Onias assassinated.

Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple; the resulting riots led to the death of Lysimachus.
...Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble.

Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children" (168 BCE).
...From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy in the Seleucid satrapies of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabees?wprov=sfla1

170-169BC (Dan 11:25-26); Sixth Syrian War; Egypt king betrayed by friends, and army swept away

Dan 11.25-26; And he shall stir up his power and his heart against the king of the south with a great army. And the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army, but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him. Even those who eat his food shall break him. His army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain.

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In 170, Eulaeus and Lenaeus, the two regents of the young king of Egypt Ptolemy VI Philometor, declared war on the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes. In the same year, Ptolemy's younger siblings Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra II were declared co-rulers in order to bolster the unity of Egypt. Military operations did not begin until 169 when Antiochus quickly gained the upper hand, seizing the important strategic town of Pelusium. The Egyptians realised their folly in starting the war, Eulaeus and Lenaeus were overthrown and replaced by two new regents, Comanus and Cineas, and envoys were sent to negotiate a peace treaty with Antiochus. Antiochus took Ptolemy VI (who was his nephew) under his guardianship, giving him effective control of Egypt.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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170: Outbreak of the Sixth Syrian War.

The Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes prepares himself and strikes first:

169: Antiochus invades Egypt, captures Memphis, and demands that Ptolemy VI receives other advisers (Comanus and Cineas). He presents himself as protector of the king. Greek embassies to negotiate an armistice are sent back. In Alexandria, people demand that Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VIII become king.

Antiochus retreats (keeping Pelusion) and leaves the war to Ptolemy VI; in the winter, the Ptolemaic rulers are reconciled, which puts an end to Antiochus' ambition to keep the two brothers fighting against each other

http://www.livius.org/articles/concept/syrian-war-6/?

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.

169-168BC (Dan 11:27); Antiochus IV leaves Ptolomy VI king in Egypt, but not yet the end.

Dan 11.27; And as for the two kings, their hearts shall be bent on doing evil. They shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail, for the end is yet to be at the time appointed.

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However, this was unacceptable to the people of Alexandria who responded by proclaiming Ptolemy Physcon as sole king. Antiochus besieged Alexandria but he was unable to cut communications to the city so, at the end of 169, he withdrew his army.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

____________

Wars against Egypt

Main article: Sixth Syrian War

The guardians of King Ptolemy VI Philometordemanded the return of Coele-Syria in 170 BC, but Antiochus launched a preemptive strike against Egypt, conquering all but Alexandriaand capturing King Ptolemy. To avoid alarming Rome, Antiochus allowed Ptolemy VI to continue ruling as a puppet king. Upon Antiochus' withdrawal, the city of Alexandria chose a new king, one of Ptolemy's brothers, also named Ptolemy (VIII Euergetes). The Ptolemy brothers ruled Egypt jointly.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

169-168BC (Dan 11:28); Antiochus IV returns from Egypt

Dan 11.28; And he shall return to his land with great wealth, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. And he shall work his will and return to his own land.

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170-168: Sixth Syrian War: Ptolemy VI Philometor -who is too young to rule- attacks the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus IV builds a navy (against the terms of the Peace of Apamea) and conquers Cyprus and large parts of Egypt and presents himself as protector of Ptolemy VI against his relatives Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon and Cleopatra II

Livy http://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iv-epiphanes/

168BC (Dan 11:29-30a): Elderly Roman draws circle around Antiochus IV with demand to answer if he was going to submit to Rome's demands.

Dan 11:29-30a - At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but it shall not be this time as it was before. For ships of Kittim (aka. Cyprus) shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw

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In 168 BC, Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet to capture Cyprus. Before he reached Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single elderly Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas who delivered a message from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council, whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and said: "Before you cross this circle, I want you to give me a reply for the Roman Senate." This implied Rome would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes
or: Polybius 29.27.4, Livy 45.12.4ff.

Timeline from Antiochus IV rewarding Jews who broke God's law (168BC/Dan.11:30b) through his death (164BC/Dan.11:44)
168-167 (Dan 11:30b): Active rewarding of those betraying God

Dan 11.30b: , and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and pay attention to those who forsake the holy covenant.

-___-______-___

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadelcalled the Acra.
The date of Antiochus's persecution of the Jews in Jerusalem is variously given as 168 or 167 BC. In their commentary on the Book of Daniel, Newsom and Breed argue for 167, although they state that good arguments can be made for either chronology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

168-167BC (Dan 11:31); Set up the Abomination of Desolation

Dan 11.31; Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the regular burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate.

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Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and immediately adopted his father's previous policy of universal Hellenisation. The Jews rebelled again and Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force. Considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were officially outlawed. When Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs (the usual sacrifice offered to the Greek gods in the Hellenic religion), their anger began to spiral. When a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest (Mattathias) killed him. In 167 BCE, the Jews rose up en masse behind Mattathias and his five sons to fight and win their freedom from Seleucid authority. Mattathias' son Judas Maccabaeus, now called "The Hammer", re-dedicated the temple in 165 BCE and the Jews celebrate this event to this day as a major part of the festival of Hanukkah.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_in_Jerusalem?wprov=sfla1

167BC (Dan 11:32-35); Maccabean revolt and Hanukkah

Dan 11.32-35; He shall seduce with flattery those who violate the covenant, but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action. And the wise among the people shall make many understand, though for some days they shall stumble by sword and flame, by captivity and plunder. When they stumble, they shall receive a little help. And many shall join themselves to them with flattery, and some of the wise shall stumble, so that they may be refined, purified, and made white, until the time of the end, for it still awaits the appointed time.

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The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean revolt.[11]:238

According to the authors of the Books of Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.[12]

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14
Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed (168 BC) because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

Mina of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Traditionally, as expressed in the First and Second Books of the Maccabees, the Maccabean Revolt was painted as a national resistance to a foreign political and cultural oppression. In modern times, however, scholars have argued that the king was instead intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews in the country and the Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem.[13][14][15] According to Joseph P. Schultz:

Modern scholarship on the other hand considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp.[16]

It seems that the traditionalists, with Hebrew/Aramaic names such as Onias, contested with the Hellenizers, with Greek names such as Jason and Menelaus, over who would be the High Priest.[17] Other authors have pointed to the possibility of socioeconomic motives, as well as religious ones, as having been primary drivers of the civil war.[18]

What began in many respects as a civil war escalated when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews in their conflict with the traditionalists.[19] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus took the side of the Hellenizers by prohibiting the religious practices around which the traditionalists had rallied. This could explain why the king banned the traditional religion of a whole people, in a total departure from typical Seleucid practice in other settings.[20]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes

167BC (Dan 11:36-39); Antiochus IV; Syrian King who demanded to be worshiped as God in Temple with pigs blood

Dan 11.36-39; “And the king shall do as he wills. He shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is decreed shall be done. 37 He shall pay no attention to the gods of his fathers, or to the one beloved by women. He shall not pay attention to any other god, for he shall magnify himself above all. 38 He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these. A god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god. Those who acknowledge him he shall load with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.[f]

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In 169, however, while Antiochus was campaigning in Egypt, Jason conquered Jerusalem—with the exception of the citadel—and murdered many adherents of his rival Menelaus. When Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 he took Jerusalem by storm and enforced its Hellenization. The city forfeited its privileges and was permanently garrisoned by Syrian soldiers.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antiochus-IV-Epiphanes

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The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean Revolt.:238

Books of Maccabees

According to the authors of the Books of the Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jasongathered a force of 1000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 168 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

167-164BC (Dan 11:40-43); Antiochus IV; Conquest by Force

Dan 11.40-43; “At the time of the end, the king of the south shall attack him, but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships. And he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Cushites shall follow in his train.

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DELIVERED:
- Edom
- Moab
- Ammonites (main part)

CONQUORED:
- Egypt
- Libia
- Cush
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King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.[citation needed]
Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC.
According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.
According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he was horrifically injured in the following manner, which eventually led to his death:

5 But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him with an incurable and invisible blow. As soon as he stopped speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels, for which there was no relief, and with sharp internal tortures— 6 and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions. 7 Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to drive even faster. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body. 8 Thus he who only a little while before had thought in his superhuman arrogance that he could command the waves of the sea, and had imagined that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.

— 2 Maccabees 9:5-9, NRSV

Legacy

Jewish tradition

Antiochus IV ruled the Jews from 175 to 164 BC. He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees and the "Scroll of Antiochus".Rabbinical sources refer to him as הרשע harasha ("the wicked"); the Jewish Encyclopedia concluded that "[s]ince Jewish and heathen sources agree in their characterization of him, their portrayal is evidently correct", summarizing this portrayal as one of a cruel and vainglorious ruler who tried to force on all the peoples of his realm a Hellenic culture, "the true essence of which he can scarcely be said to have appreciated".Whether Antiochus's policy was directed at extermination of Judaism as a culture and a religion, though, is debatable on the grounds that his persecution was limited to Judea and Samaria (Jews in the diaspora were exempt), and that Antiochus was hardly an ideologically motivated Hellenizer. Erich S. Gruen suggests that, instead, he was driven more by pragmatics such as the need to gather income from Judea.

164BC (Dan 11:44); Antiochus IV - final years, and meets Death

Dan 11.44; But news from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go out with great fury to destroy and devote many to destruction. And he shall pitch his palatial tents between the sea and the glorious holy mountain. Yet he shall come to his end, with none to help him.

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Final years

King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.

Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. [21]

According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.[22] According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he died in the following manner:

Punishment of Antiochus, engraving by Gustave Doré
But the all-seeing Lord, the God of
Israel, struck him an incurable and
unseen blow. As soon as he ceased
speaking he was seized with a pain in
his bowels for which there was no relief
and with sharp internal tortures - and
that very justly, for he had tortured the
bowels of others with many and strange
inflictions. Yet he did not in any way
stop his insolence, but was even more
filled with arrogance, breathing fire in
his rage against the Jews, and giving
orders to hasten the journey. And so it
came about that he fell out of his
chariot as it was rushing along, and the
fall was so hard as to torture every limb
of his body.[23]

167-29AD (Dan 12:1); Michael gets up, those in Book of Life are protected

Dan 12. 1a; At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time.

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Michael is angel over virtue.

Completion of Daniel's prophesy through Jesus(Joshua) and description of what follows
30AD (Dan 12:2-3); Christ Conquers Death

Dan 12:1b-3; But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book. And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Dan 12:4; *Daniel shut up and seal book / Knowledge will increase

Dan 12. 4; But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end. Many will run back and forth, and knowledge will be increased.”



The chronological order, historic dates, and chapter designations of the biblical book of Daniel are based on the historical order of Kings of Babylon:

  1. 589BC; Ch. 1-4 – Nebuchadnezzar
  2. 553BC; Ch. 7 – Belshazzar (1st yr)
  3. 550BC; Ch. 8 – Belshazzar (3rd yr)
  4. 10/5/549BC; Ch. 5 – Belshazzar (day before end)
  5. 546BC; Ch. 10 – Cyrus (3rd yr)
  6. 529BC; Ch. 11-12 – Darius the Mede (1st yr)
  7. 9/522BC; Ch. 9 – Darius I  (1st yr)
  8. after 522BC; Ch. 6 – Lions den