I only have a few…

Our good news culturally paraphrased…

...in a few seconds




We follow every standard we demand.

Mark 4

  • He said to them, “Take heed what you hear. With whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you, and more will be given to you who hear.

Matthew 6

  • For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you don’t forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

Matthew 7

  • For with whatever judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you.



We know all truth is God's truth.

John 1

  • The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.

John 8

  • If you remain in my word, then you are truly my disciples. You will know The Truth, and The Truth will make you free.

Luke 12

  • You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how is it that you don’t interpret this time? Why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right?

John 14

  • I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me.

John 14

  • I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever,— the Spirit of Truth, whom the world can’t receive; for it doesn’t see him, neither knows him.

John 16

  • However when he, the Spirit of Truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak.



We practice servant leadership.

John 6

  • Jesus therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force, to make him king, withdrew again to the mountain by himself.

Luke 14

  • Everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.

Matthew 18

  • Whoever therefore humbles himself as this little child, the same is the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven.

Luke 22

  • I am among you as one who serves.



We follow Jesus, the Christ.

Mark 2

  • As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, “Follow me.” And he arose and followed him.

John 8

  • I am the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life.

Matthew 19

  • He who doesn’t take his cross and follow after me, isn’t worthy of me.

...in a few days

Five 24 hour days of Jesus' life on Earth:

after 4/18/29AD6/7/29between 10/09-17/29ADbetween 12/19-26/29ADFri.4/7/30AD


After Passover in 29 AD (and John's arrest), Jesus gave his announcement speech - to his home church:

His announcement is described in Matthew 4:13-17, and Luke 4:16-30.

He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the broken hearted, to proclaim release to the captives, recovering of sight to the blind, to deliver those who are crushed, and to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”

He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. He began to tell them, “Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.” All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, “Isn’t this Joseph’s son?”

He said to them, 

“Doubtless you will tell me this parable, ‘Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.’” He said, “Most certainly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 

But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 

There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian.”

They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff.  But he, passing through the middle of them, went his way.

Leaving Nazareth, he lived in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, toward the sea, beyond the Jordan, the people who sat in darkness saw a great light, to those who sat in the region and shadow of death, to them light has dawned.” From that time; Jesus began to preach, and to say, 


For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Luke 4:16-30
  2. Matthew 4:13-17


A few weeks later (50 days after Passover), Jesus teaches in the Jerusalem temple:

Shavout 29 AD is described in Matthew 9:9-17, Mark 2:14-22, and Luke 5:27-39

After these things Jesus went out from there. As he passed by, he saw a man named Levi, (called Matthew the son of Alphaeus), sitting at the tax collection office. He said to him, “Follow me!”

He got up, left everything, and rose up and followed him.

Levi made a great feast for him in his house. There was a great crowd of tax collectors and others who were with them. As Jesus sat reclining at the table in the house, behold, tax collectors and sinners came and sat down with Jesus and his disciples (for there were many); and they followed him. 

When the scribes and the Pharisees saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, they murmured against and said to his disciples, “Why is it that your teacher eats with tax collectors and sinners?”

When Jesus heard it he answered them, “Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do. But you go and learn what this means: ‘I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,’ for I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

Then John’s disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came to him and asked him, saying, “Why do we (John’s disciples) and disciples of the Pharisees fast and pray often, but your disciples don’t fast …yours eat and drink?”

Jesus said to them, “Can you make the groomsmen fast and mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can’t fast. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast, in those days.

He also told a parable to them.

  • No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old garment; or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made.
  • No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined.

No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says, ‘The old is better.’ No, new wine must be put into fresh wine skins, and both are preserved.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Matthew 9:9-17
  2. Mark 2:14-22
  3. Luke 5:27-39

Keep reading Jesus' story part 37. Healing stolen; dead girl raised


In the fall, Jesus teaches at the Festival of Tents (which remembers Jewish people leaving Egypt's slavery):

Festival of Tents 29 AD is described in John 7:1-36.

After these things, Jesus was walking in Galilee, for he wouldn’t walk in Judea, because the Jews sought to kill him. Now the feast of the Jews, the Feast of Booths, was at hand. His brothers therefore said to him, “Depart from here, and go into Judea, that your disciples also may see your works which you do. For no one does anything in secret, and himself seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, reveal yourself to the world.” For even his brothers didn’t believe in him.

      Jesus therefore said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always ready. The world can’t hate you, but it hates me, because I testify about it, that its works are evil. You go up to the feast. I am not yet going up to this feast, because my time is not yet fulfilled.” Having said these things to them, he stayed in Galilee. But when his brothers had gone up to the feast, then he also went up, not publicly, but as it were in secret.

      The Jews therefore sought him at the feast, and said, “Where is he?” There was much murmuring among the multitudes concerning him. Some said, “He is a good man.” Others said, “Not so, but he leads the multitude astray.” Yet no one spoke openly of him for fear of the Jews. But when it was now the middle of the feast, Jesus went up into the temple and taught. The Jews therefore marveled, saying, “How does this man know, having never been educated?”

Jesus therefore answered them, “My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory, but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. Didn’t Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me?”

The multitude answered, “You have a demon! Who seeks to kill you?”

Jesus answered them, “I did one work, and you all marvel because of it. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man completely healthy on the Sabbath? Don’t judge according to appearance, but judge righteous judgment.”

Therefore; some of them of Jerusalem said, “Isn’t this he whom they seek to kill? Behold, he speaks openly, and they say nothing to him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is truly the Christ? However; we know where this man comes from, but when the Christ comes, no one will know where he comes from.”

Jesus therefore cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, “You both know me, and know where I am from. I have not come of myself, but he who sent me is true, whom you don’t know. I know him, because I am from him, and he sent me.”

They sought therefore to take him; but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. But of the multitude, many believed in him. They said, “When the Christ comes, he won’t do more signs than those which this man has done, will he?” The Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning him, and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to arrest him.

Then Jesus said, “I will be with you a little while longer, then I go to him who sent me. You will seek me, and won’t find me; and where I am, you can’t come.”

The Jews therefore said among themselves, “Where will this man go that we won’t find him? Will he go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? What is this word that he said, ‘You will seek me, and won’t find me; and where I am, you can’t come’?”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 7:1-36


In the winter, Jesus teaches at Hanukkah (and calls us "gods"... which was not readily accepted):

Hannukah 29 AD is described in John 10:22-42.

It was the Feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple, in Solomon’s porch. The Jews therefore came around him and said to him, “How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.” Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you don’t believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name, these testify about me. But you don’t believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father’s hand.  I and the Father are one.” Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of those works do you stone me?” The Jews answered him, “We don’t stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God.” Jesus answered them,  “Isn’t it written in your law, ‘I said, you are gods?’ If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture can’t be broken), do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You blaspheme,’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God?’ If I don’t do the works of my Father, don’t believe me. But if I do them, though you don’t believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father.”

They sought again to seize him, and he went out of their hand. He went away again beyond the Jordan into the place where John was baptizing at first, and there he stayed. Many came to him. They said, “John indeed did no sign, but everything that John said about this man is true.” Many believed in him there.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 10:22-42


At the spring Passover, all four describe Jesus' last 24 hours with his followers:

Thursday of Passover 30 AD as described in John 13:1-18:27, Matthew 26:17-75, Mark 14:12-72, Luke 22:7-65
Jesus' meal preparation

Now on the first day of unleavened bread (when the Passover must be sacrificed), the disciples came to Jesus, asking to him, “Where do you want us to go and prepare for you that you may eat the Passover?” He sent two of his disciples (Peter and John), and said to them, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat.” They said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare?” He said to them, “Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house (wherever he enters in). Go to a certain person and tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, “My time is at hand. Where is the guestroom where I will keep and eat the Passover at your house with my disciples?”’ He will, himself, show you a large furnished upper room; ready. Make preparations for us there.” The disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had told them, and did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Matthew 26:17-19
  2. Mark 14:12-16
  3. Luke 22:7-13
Jesus shows eternal leadership

When the hour had come (when it was evening), he was reclining with the twelve at the table. As they sat down and before the feast of the Passover, Jesus, knowing that his time had come that he would depart from this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. During supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him; Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he came from God, and was going to God, arose from supper, and laid aside his outer garments. He took a towel, and wrapped a towel around his waist. Then he poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples’ feet, and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him. 

      Then he came to Simon Peter. He said to him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?” Jesus answered him, “You don’t know what I am doing now, but you will understand later.” Peter said to him, “You will never wash my feet!” Jesus answered him, “If I don’t wash you, you have no part with me.” Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head!” Jesus said to him, “Someone who has bathed only needs to have his feet washed, but is completely clean. You are clean, but not all of you.” For he knew him who would betray him, therefore he said, “You are not all clean.” So when he had washed their feet, put his outer garment back on, and sat down again, he said to them, “Do you know what I have done to you? You call me, ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord.’ You say so correctly, for so I am. If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have given you an example, that you also should do as I have done to you. Most certainly I tell you, a servant is not greater than his lord, neither one who is sent greater than he who sent him. If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. I don’t speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen. But that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.’ From now on, I tell you before it happens, that when it happens, you may believe that I am he. Most certainly I tell you, he who receives whomever I send, receives me; and he who receives me, receives him who sent me.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 13:1-20
  2. Matthew 26:20
  3. Mark 14:18a
  4. Luke 22:14
Jesus identifies his betrayer

When they were eating, Jesus said he was troubled in spirit, and testified, “Most certainly I tell you that one of you will betray me—he who eats with me. The hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined, but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed! The disciples looked at one another. They began to be exceedingly sorrowful, and perplexed about whom he spoke. They began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. Each began to ask him one by one, “It isn’t me, is it, Lord?” There arose also a contention among them, which of them was considered to be greatest. He said to them, “The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn’t it he who sits at the table? But I am among you as one who serves.

One of his disciples, whom Jesus loved, was at the table, leaning against Jesus’ breast. Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, and said to him, “Tell us who it is of whom he speaks.” He, leaning back, as he was, on Jesus’ breast, asked him, “Lord, who is it?” Jesus therefore answered them, “It is one of the twelve, he to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it (who dips with me in the dish), the same will betray me. The Son of Man goes, even as it is written about him, but woe to that man through whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born.” 

      So when he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. After the piece of bread, then Satan entered into him. Judas, who betrayed him, answered, “It isn’t me, is it, Rabbi?” Then Jesus said to him, “You said it. What you do, do quickly.” Now no man at the table knew why he said this to him. For some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus said to him, “Buy what things we need for the feast,” or that he should give something to the poor. Therefore; having received that morsel, he went out immediately. It was night.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 13:21-30
  2. Matthew 26:21-25
  3. Mark 14:18-21
  4. Luke 22:21-30
Jesus' follower's new rule

When he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now the Son of Man has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him. If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and he will glorify him immediately. Little children, I will be with you a little while longer. You will seek me, and as I said to the Jews, ‘Where I am going, you can’t come,’ so now I tell you. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also love one another. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 13:31-35
Peter asks...

      Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” Jesus answered, “Where I am going, you can’t follow now, but you will follow afterwards.” Peter said to him, “Lord, why can’t I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.” Jesus answered him, “Will you lay down your life for me? Most certainly I tell you, the rooster won’t crow until you have denied me three times. “Don’t let your heart be troubled. Believe in God. Believe also in me. In my Father’s house are many homes. If it weren’t so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. Where I go, you know, and you know the way.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 13:36-14:4
Thomas asks...

      Thomas said to him, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going. How can we know the way?” Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 14:5-7
Phillip asks...

      Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us.” Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, ‘Show us the Father?’ Don’t you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works’ sake. Most certainly I tell you, he who believes in me, the works that I do, he will do also; and he will do greater works than these, because I am going to my Father. Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you will ask anything in my name, I will do it.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 14:8-14
Jesus' last meal (communion)

He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in God’s Kingdom.” As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks for and blessed it; broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me.” Likewise, he took the cup after supper. When he had given thanks, gave to them; saying, “All of you… take this and share it among yourselves; drink it, for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is poured out for you, for many; for the remission of sins. Most certainly I tell you that I will not drink at all again from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father’s Kingdom.” They all drank of it.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Matthew 26:26-29
  2. Mark 14:22-25
  3. Luke 22:14b-20
Holy spirit of truth will grow from Jesus through his followers

If you love me, keep my commandments. I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever, — the Spirit of truth, whom the world can’t receive; for it doesn’t see him, neither knows him. You know him, for he lives with you, and will be in you. I will not leave you orphans. I will come to you. Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more; but you will see me. Because I live, you will live also. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. One who has my commandments, and keeps them, that person is one who loves me. One who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and will reveal myself to him.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 14:15-21
Judas (not Iscariot) asks...

      Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, what has happened that you are about to reveal yourself to us, and not to the world?” Jesus answered him, “If a man loves me, he will keep my word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our home with him. He who doesn’t love me doesn’t keep my words. The word which you hear isn’t mine, but the Father’s who sent me. I have said these things to you, while still living with you. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. Peace I leave with you. My peace I give to you; not as the world gives, give I to you. Don’t let your heart be troubled, neither let it be fearful. You heard how I told you, ‘I go away, and I come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said ‘I am going to my Father;’ for the Father is greater than I. Now I have told you before it happens so that, when it happens, you may believe. I will no more speak much with you, for the prince of the world comes, and he has nothing in me. But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father commanded me, even so I do. Rise, let us go our from here." 

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 14:22-31
  2. Matthew 26:30a
  3. Mark 14:26
They leave the room

When Jesus had spoken these words, they sung a hymn, and they went out.

Jesus continued, " I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. Every branch in me that doesn’t bear fruit, he takes away. Every branch that bears fruit, he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. You are already pruned clean because of the word which I have spoken to you. Remain in me, and I in you. As the branch can’t bear fruit by itself, unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. If a man doesn’t remain in me, he is thrown out as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, throw them into the fire, and they are burned. If you remain in me, and my words remain in you, you will ask whatever you desire, and it will be done for you. “In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my disciples. Even as the Father has loved me, I also have loved you. Remain in my love. If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and remain in his love. I have spoken these things to you, that my joy may remain in you, and that your joy may be made full. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 15:1-3
  2. Matthew 26:30b
Jesus identifies his friends

You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant doesn’t know what his lord does. But I have called you friends, for everything that I heard from my Father, I have made known to you. You didn’t choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you. “I command these things to you, that you may love one another. 

If the world hates you, you know that it has hated me before it hated you. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. Remember the word that I said to you: ‘A servant is not greater than his lord.’ If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will keep yours also. But all these things will they do to you for my name’s sake, because they don’t know him who sent me. If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have had sin; but now they have no excuse for their sin. He who hates me, hates my Father also. If I hadn’t done among them the works which no one else did, they wouldn’t have had sin. But now have they seen and also hated both me and my Father. But this happened so that the word may be fulfilled which was written in their law, ‘They hated me without a cause.’

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 15:14-25
Jesus identifies the Holy Spirit of Truth

“When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. You will also testify, because you have been with me from the beginning. These things have I spoken to you, so that you wouldn’t be caused to stumble. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. They will do these things because they have not known the Father, nor me. But I have told you these things, so that when the time comes, you may remember that I told you about them. I didn’t tell you these things from the beginning, because I was with you. But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?’ But because I have told you these things, sorrow has filled your heart. Nevertheless; I tell you the truth: It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I don’t go away, the Counselor won’t come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. 

When he has come, he will convict the world about sin, about righteousness, and about judgment; about sin, because they don’t believe in me; about righteousness, because I am going to my Father, and you won’t see me anymore; about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged. I have yet many things to tell you, but you can’t bear them now. However; when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming. He will glorify me, for he will take from what is mine, and will declare it to you. All things whatever the Father has are mine; therefore; I said that he takes of mine, and will declare it to you. A little while, and you will not see me. Again a little while, and you will see me.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 15:26-16:6
Jesus' followers murmur in confusion...

      Some of his disciples therefore said to one another, “What is this that he says to us, ‘A little while, and you won’t see me, and again a little while, and you will see me;’ and, ‘Because I go to the Father’?” They said therefore, “What is this that he says, ‘A little while’? We don’t know what he is saying.” Therefore; Jesus perceived that they wanted to ask him, and he said to them, “Do you inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, ‘A little while, and you won’t see me, and again a little while, and you will see me?’ Most certainly I tell you, that you will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice. You will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will be turned into joy. A woman, when she gives birth, has sorrow, because her time has come. But when she has delivered the child, she doesn’t remember the anguish any more, for the joy that a human being is born into the world. Therefore; you now have sorrow, but I will see you again, and your heart will rejoice, and no one will take your joy away from you.

      In that day you will ask me no questions. Most certainly I tell you, whatever you may ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full. I have spoken these things to you in figures of speech. But the time is coming when I will no more speak to you in figures of speech, but will tell you plainly about the Father. In that day you will ask in my name; and I don’t say to you, that I will pray to the Father for you, for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came from God. I came from the Father, and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world, and go to the Father.”

His disciples said to him, “Behold, now you speak plainly, and speak no figures of speech. Now we know that you know all things, and don’t need for anyone to question you. By this we believe that you came from God.”       Jesus answered them, “Do you now believe? Behold, the time is coming, yes, and has now come, that you will be scattered, everyone to his own place, and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. I have told you these things, that in me you may have peace. In the world you have oppression; but cheer up!  I have overcome the world.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 16:17-33
Jesus prays for his followers

Jesus said these things, and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said, “Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may also glorify you; even as you gave him authority over all flesh, he will give eternal life to all whom you have given him. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ. I glorified you on the earth. I have accomplished the work which you have given me to do. Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. I revealed your name to the people whom you have given me out of the world. They were yours, and you have given them to me. They have kept your word. Now they have known that all things whatever you have given me are from you, for the words which you have given me I have given to them, and they received them, and knew for sure that I came from you, and they have believed that you sent me. I pray for them.

      I don’t pray for the world, but for those whom you have given me, for they are yours. All things that are mine are yours, and yours are mine, and I am glorified in them. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. While I was with them in the world, I kept them in your name. Those whom you have given me I have kept. None of them is lost, except the son of destruction, that the Scripture might be fulfilled. But now I come to you, and I say these things in the world, that they may have my joy made full in themselves. I have given them your word. The world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 

      They are not of the world even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them in your truth. Your word is truth. As you sent me into the world, even so I have sent them into the world. For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word, that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me. Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. Righteous Father, the world hasn’t known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me. I made known to them your name, and will make it known; that the love with which you loved me may be in them, and I in them.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 17:1-26
They leave the city

His disciples followed him over the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, into which he and his disciples entered. Then Jesus said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’ However; after I am raised up, I will go before you into Galilee. But you are those who have continued with me in my trials. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me, that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 18:1
  2. Matthew 26:31-32
  3. Mark 4:27
  4. Luke 22:28-30
Jesus warns and encourages Peter

The Lord said, “Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat, but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn’t fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers.” But Peter answered him,  “Even if all will be made to stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble. Although all will be offended, yet I will not. Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” Jesus said to him, “Most certainly I tell you, Peter, that tonight (even this night), the rooster will by no means crow twice …you will deny that you know me three times.”

      Peter spoke to him all the more, “Even if I must die with you, I will not deny you.” The disciples all said the same thing. He said to them, “When I sent you out without purse, and wallet, and shoes, did you lack anything?” They said, “Nothing.” Then he said to them, “But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword. For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: ‘He was counted with transgressors.’ For that which concerns me has an end.” They said, “Lord, behold, here are two swords.” He said to them, “That is enough.” He came out, and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Matthew 26:33-35
  2. Mark 14:29-31
  3. Luke 22:31-38
In the garden

Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane. When he was at the place, he said to his disciples, “Sit here, while I go there and pray. Pray that you don’t enter into temptation.” He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee (James and John), and began to be greatly sorrowful, distressed and severely troubled. Then he said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch with me.” He went forward a little, and fell on his face on the ground. He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw, and prayed that the hour might pass away from him. He said, “My Abba Father; if it is possible, (if you are willing) let this cup pass away …remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire. All things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not what I desire …but yours …but what you desire be done. An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him. Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground. When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief, and said to Peter, “What; Simon, are you sleeping? Why do you sleep? Couldn’t you watch with me for one hour? Rise and watch and pray, that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. Again, a second time he went away, and prayed, the same words, saying, “My Father, if this cup can’t pass away from me unless I drink it, your desire be done.” He came again and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy. He left them again, went away, and prayed a third time, saying the same words and they didn’t know what to answer him.  Then he came to his disciples, and said to them, “Sleep on now, and take your rest. It is enough. Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. “Arise, let’s be going. Behold, he who betrays me is at hand.”

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. Matthew 26:36-46
  2. Mark 14:32-42
  3. Luke 22:40-46
Jesus' arrest

      Immediately while he was still speaking; Judas came (one of the twelve, who betrayed him, also knew the place). Jesus often met there with his disciples; now, he who betrayed him had given them a sign, saying, “Whoever I will kiss, he is the one. Seize him, and lead him away safely.” When he had come, immediately he came to Jesus, and said, “Hail, Rabbi! Rabbi!” and came near to kiss him. But Jesus said to him, “Judas, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?” He kissed him. Jesus said to him, “Friend, why are you here?” 

      Judas then was leading them. Having taken a detachment of soldiers came, and with him a great multitude and officers with swords and clubs from the chief priests, the scribes, elders of the people and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. Jesus therefore, knowing all the things that were happening to him, went out, and said to them, Who are you looking for?” They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said to them, “I am he.” Judas also, who betrayed him, was standing with them. When therefore he said to them, “I am he,” they went backward, and fell to the ground.

      In that hour Jesus answered the multitudes (the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders); who had come against him, “Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs to seize me? When I sat daily with you in the temple teaching, and you didn’t arrest me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness. But all this has happened, that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.”

Again therefore he asked them, “Who are you looking for?” They said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way,” that the word might be fulfilled which he spoke, “Of those whom you have given me, I have lost none.” When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” Simon Peter therefore, having a sword, stretched out his hand, and drew it, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. Then Jesus therefore said to Peter, “Put your sword into its place, for all those who take the sword will die by the sword. Or do you think that I couldn’t ask my Father, and he would even now send me more than twelve legions of angels? How then would the Scriptures be fulfilled that it must be so? The cup which the Father has given me, shall I not surely drink it? Let me at least do this” —and he touched his ear, and healed him.

      So the detachment, the commanding officer, and the officers of the Jews, came and laid their hands on Jesus, and seized and bound him, and led him away; took him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas (who was high priest that year). Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people, and brought him into the high priest’s house. But Peter followed from a distance. Then all the disciples left him, and fled. A certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth thrown around himself, over his naked body. The young men grabbed him, but he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 18:2-14
  2. Matthew 26:47-56
  3. Mark 14:43-52
  4. Luke 22:47-54
Jesus' trial

Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where all the chief priests, the scribes and the elders were gathered together with him. But Simon Peter had followed Jesus from a distance, as did another disciple …until he came into the court of the high priest, and entered in and was sitting with the officers to see the end; warming himself in the light of the fire. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest; but Peter was standing at the door outside. So the other disciple (who was known to the high priest) went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter. 

When the servants and the officers were standing there, they had kindled a fire of coals in the middle of the courtyard (for it was cold). They were warming themselves and had sat down together. Peter was standing and warming himself among them outside in the court. Then a certain servant girl (maid) who kept the door came and saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him. She said to Peter, “Are you also one of Jesus, the Galilean’s disciples? (This man also was with him)” But he denied Jesus before them all; he said, “Woman, I am not! I don’t know him… I don’t know what you are talking about.”

The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said.”

When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, “Do you answer the high priest like that?” Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me?” Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, to put him to death; and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, their testimony didn’t agree with each other. But at last two false witnesses stood up, and came forward against him, and said, “We heard him say, ‘I am able to and will destroy this temple of God that is made with hands, and I will build another made without hands in three days.’” Even so, their testimony did not agree. The high priest stood up in the middle, and asked Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you?” But Jesus held his peace, stayed quiet, and answered nothing. The high priest answered him, “I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.” Jesus said to him, “You have said it.” Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” Jesus said, “I am. Nevertheless, I tell you, after this you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky.

Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, “He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. What do you think?” They answered, “He is worthy of death!” Then some began to spit in his face, and to cover his face, and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him, saying, “Prophesy! Prophesy to us, you Christ! Who hit you? What further need have we of witnesses? You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?” The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. They all condemned him to be worthy of death.

Now as Simon Peter was standing in the courtyard below and warming himself. After a little while one of the maids of the high priest came, and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, (when he had gone out onto the porch), and said “You were also with the Nazarene, Jesus!” …to those who were there, “This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth” They said therefore to him, “You aren’t also one of his disciples, are you?” Again he denied it, and Peter with an oath, saying, “Man, I am not. I don’t know the man. I neither know, nor understand what you are saying.” After a little while passed (about one hour), another of the servants of the high priest who stood by (being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off), came and confidently affirmed to Peter, “Surely you are also one of them, for your speech shows it. Didn’t I see you in the garden with him? (Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!)” The maid saw him, and began again to tell those who stood by, “This is one of them.” Then Peter began to curse and to swear (denied again), “Man, I don’t know this man of whom you speak! I don’t know what you are talking about!” Immediately (while he was still speaking) he went out on the porch, and the rooster crowed the second time. The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the word which Jesus had said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” He went out and wept bitterly.  When he thought about that, he wept.

Source Text Prioritization:

  1. John 18:15-27
  2. Matthew 26:57-75
  3. Mark 14:53-72
  4. Luke 22:55-62


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There are a number of words that require understanding of how and why they are used in the manner they are used. Here's some Word Translation Notes (living document).

Each blog should have it's own guide to the words translated in that specific post... but the hope is to have a master list too.

Starting Points

Gospels Combined

Jesus' Story

Jesus' Story

All Jesus' words with culturally paraphrased details and setting spoken from the we perspective - representing his followers (who are filled his holy spirit of truth).

This is currently in production.


Prophesy grows into History

Beginning of Daniel 11 and 12 outlining history up to Joshua, the ChosenOne
589BC (pre-Daniel); Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem

Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. ... After the fall of Jerusalem, the Babylonian general, Nebuzaraddan, was sent to complete its destruction. Jerusalem was plundered, and Solomon's Temple was destroyed. Most of the elite were taken into captivity in Babylon.

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) - Wikipedia

530-464 BC - Dan 11:1-2 (Sept 530BC); Persian Kings; NOW:Cyrus, FOUR:Cambyses, Bardiya, Darius(9/522BC), Xerxes(10/486BC) stirring against Greece (Darius with Cyrus the Mede before attacking Sythians)

Dan 11. 1; And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him.

Dan 11. 2; “And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings shall arise in Persia, and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them. And when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.


Three more kings would arise in Persia after Cyrus
...Cambyses [530–522 b.c.],
...Bardiya [522], and
...Darius I Hystaspes [522–486]), and
then a fourth, who would be richer and more powerful than the others and would enter into conflict with Greece.
.. This fourth king was Xerxes I (486–464 b.c.), who invaded Greece, only to be defeated at the Battle of Salamis (480).


Herodotus’ Account
Ten years after subduing the Babylonians in 539 BCE, Cyrus turned his attention towards the northeastern part of the empire to bring “the Massagetae under his dominion. Now the Massagetae are said to be a great and warlike nation, dwelling eastward, toward the rising of the sun, beyond the river Araxes, and opposite the Issedonians. By many they are regarded as a Scythian race.”

Cyrus, seeing that had two options to consider, took the diplomatic approach first by sending ambassadors to Queen Tomyris, Massagetean ruler “with instructions to court her on his part, pretending that he wished to take her to wife.”

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century.

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century. (Public Domain)

As the Persian ambassadors crossed into Massagetae territory and approached Tomyris’ residence, she must have sent envoys of her own out to ask the Persian ambassadors as to why they had come. This was probably to check the men for weapons and question the reason for being there. After telling the Massagetae officials of their mission, it was relayed back to Tomyris. Tomyris, considering what they said, realized that it was “her kingdom, and not herself, that he courted.” Instead of hearing it from the Persian envoys, she “forbade the men to approach.” When the Persian envoys returned and informed Cyrus of her answer, he mustered his forces.

Cyrus lead his forces to the Jaxartes River, “and openly displaying his hostile intentions; set to work to construct a bridge on which his army might cross the river, and began building towers upon the boats which were to be used in the passage.” As the Persians were securing their passageways into Massagetae territory, envoys from Tomyris arrived to present Cyrus with a message which stated:

King of the Medes, cease to press this enterprise, for you cannot know if what you are doing will be of real advantage to you. Be content to rule in peace your own kingdom, and bear to see us reign over the countries that are ours to govern. As, however, I know you will not choose to hearken to this counsel, since there is nothing you less desires than peace and quietness, come now, if you are so mightily desirous of meeting the Massagetae in arms, leave your useless toil of bridge-making; let us retire three days’ march from the river bank, and do you come across with your soldiers; or, if you like better to give us battle on your side the stream, retire yourself an equal distance.

Cyrus considered this offer, called his advisors together, and made the argument before them. They all agreed to let “Tomyris cross the stream, and giving battle on Persian ground.” However not all were game to this idea. Croesus the Lydian, who was present at the meeting of the chiefs, disapproved of this advice, stating:

Now concerning the matter in hand, my judgment runs counter to the judgment of your other counselors. For if you agree to give the enemy entrance into your country, consider what risk is run! Lose the battle, and there with your whole kingdom is lost. For, assuredly, the Massagetae, if they win the fight, will not return to their homes, but will push forward against the states of your empire. Or, if you win the battle, why, then you win far less than if you were across the stream, where you might follow up your victory. For against your loss, if they defeat you on your own ground, must be set theirs in like case. Rout their army on the other side of the river, and you may push at once into the heart of their country. Moreover, were it not disgrace intolerable for Cyrus the son of Cambyses to retire before and yield ground to a woman?

Therefore, Cyrus agreed with Croesus that it would be best to face the Massagetae on their territory. Persian envoys delivered the message to Tomyris, stating “she should retire, and that he would cross the stream.” Tomyris thus moved her forces and awaited the Persian army. While he gathered his forces to cross the river, he named Cambyses II as the next king should Cyrus die.

Tomyris had her son, Spargapises lead a third of the Massagetae towards Cyrus’ forces. Cyrus left a small detachment behind with food and drink to lure the Massagetae, which they took, and then defeated the small Persian detachment and begin to eat and drink. Once the Massagetae became inebriated, the Persian forces fell on the camp and killed many, taking a few prisoners alive, including Tomyris’ son Spargapises. Spargapises, learning of what had happened, committed suicide. Tomyris, upon learning what had happened, considered the tactics of Cyrus as cowardly. Tomyris vowed revenge and Cyrus did not take heed to the warning. Cyrus pushed further into Massagetae territory where he and his forces met up with the Massagetae face to face. There are no details of the battle. One can speculate that the Massagetae won over the Persians using steppe tactics, which one would think Cyrus would have been accustomed to and able to defend against. However, whatever counter tactics Cyrus used, was all for nothing. The Massagetae won the battle, killed Cyrus, and recovered his body from the battlefield.

Queen Tomyris had the head of Cyrus cut from his body, which she dipped in blood as a symbolic act of revenge for her son, but also you could say she was giving Cyrus his fill as well. As to how much of this is truth and how much of this is fiction is up to the reader to decide. Herodotus does seem plausible in his account but he is not the only one.

Like all powerful men facing a boundless enterprise, Cyrus also had the chance to reflect and change his mind; but his hybris did not let him recognize the situation, so that the warning of the messenger of Tomyris to content himself with what he had (1.206.1) remained unheard. In this context, Croesus’s advice to carry the battle beyond the Araxes and to resort to an infamous ruse against the Massagetae proved that he was a fatal advisor (Erbse, 1992). Even a further and final warning against crossing the river left Cyrus unmoved. In a dream, he saw Darius wearing wings which cast a shadow over Asia and Europe (1.209.1). In this way the god not only pointed to the future successor and to the fact that he would be the man to carry Persian supremacy to Europe (Bichler, 1985b, pp. 128 f.), but also to the imminent death of Cyrus. However, the Great King misunderstood the dream and, fearing a revolt by Darius, sent his father Hystaspes to Susa to arrest Darius (1.209.2-5). Thus not only was the future usurper Darius kept alive (Bichler 2000b, p. 266), but the ensuing tribute paid to Cyrus by Hystaspes for having changed the Persians from remaining servants to becoming free men (1.210.2) can be interpreted as an anticipated obituary. Cyrus also ignored the last warning of Tomyris (1.212) that his fate would end in a fearful tragedy. Following a lost battle, his severed head was put into a bag full of blood, that being, according to Herodotus, the most credible variant among several stories about the death of the king (1.214).


(Robert Rollinger)

Originally Published: December 15, 2003

Last Updated: March 22, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. XII, Fasc. 3, pp. 260-262


Timeline from Antiochus III invading Jerusalem (219BC/Dan.11:10) through his death (July-3-187BC/Dan.11:19)
219BC (Dan 11:10); Antiochus III invades [4th Syrian War]

Dan 11.10; “His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall keep coming and overflow and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress."


Egypt had been significantly weakened by court intrigue and public unrest. The rule of the newly inaugurated Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC) began with the murder of queen-mother Berenice II. The young king quickly fell under the absolute influence of imperial courtiers. His ministers used their absolute power in their own self-interest, to the people's great chagrin.

Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC. He recaptured Seleucia Pieria as well as cities in Phoenicia, amongst them Tyre.
...Rather than promptly invading Egypt, Antiochus waited in Phoenicia for over a year, consolidating his new territories and listening to diplomatic proposals from the Ptolemaic kingdom.



previous description
Antiochus III failure to launch in 1st conquest - didn't lead invasion (only 18 yrs old)
Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC.



The young king, under the influence of the minister Hermeias, headed an attack on Ptolemaic Syria instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack against the Ptolemaic empire proved a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster. Only in Asia Minor, where the king's cousin, Achaeus, represented the Seleucid cause, did its prestige recover, driving the Pergamene power back to its earlier limits.

In 221 BC Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed which Polybios attributes in part to his following the advice of Zeuxis rather than Hermeias. The submission of Lesser Media, which had asserted its independence under Artabazanes, followed. Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria (220 BC). Meanwhile, Achaeus himself had revolted and assumed the title of king in Asia Minor. Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow an attack on Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Ptolemaic Syria.



The young king was in the hands of the bad minister Hermeias, and was induced to make an attack on Palestine instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack on Palestine was a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster.


June-22-217BC (Dan 11:11); Ptolomy IV takes Jerusalem back from Antiochus III (end 4th Syrain War at the battle of Raphia), surrender at Gaza

Dan 11.11; Then the king of the south, moved with rage, shall come out and fight against the king of the north. And he shall raise a great multitude, but it shall be given into his hand.


Meanwhile, Ptolemy's minister Sosibius began recruiting and training an army. He recruited not only from the local Greek population, as Hellenistic armies generally were, but also from the native Egyptians, enrolling at least thirty thousand natives as phalangites. This innovation paid off, but it would eventually have dire consequences for Ptolemaic stability. In the summer of 217 BC, Ptolemy engaged and defeated the long-delayed Antiochus in the Battle of Raphia, the largest battle since the Battle of Ipsus over eighty years earlier.

Ptolemy's victory preserved his control over Coele-Syria, and the weak king declined to advance further into Antiochus' empire, even to retake Seleucia Pieria. The Ptolemaic kingdom would continue to weaken over the following years, suffering from economic problems and rebellion. Nationalist sentiment had developed among the native Egyptians who had fought at Raphia. Confident and well-trained, they broke from Ptolemy in what is known as the Egyptian Revolt, establishing their own kingdom in Upper Egypt which the Ptolemies finally reconquered around 185 BC.



Antiochus routed the Ptolemaic horse posed against him and pursued the fleeing enemy en masse, believing to have won the day, but the Ptolemaic phalanxes eventually drove the Seleucid phalanxes back and soon Antiochus realized that his judgment was wrong. Antiochus tried to ride back, but by the time he rode back, his troops were routed and could no longer be regrouped. The battle had ended.

After the battle, Antiochus wanted to regroup and make camp outside the city of Raphia but most of his men had already found refuge inside and he was thus forced to enter it himself.

Then he marched to Gaza and asked Ptolemy for the customary truce to bury the dead, which he was granted.


...217BC (Dan 11:12); Ptolomy IV exalted, kills 10,000s & doesn't prevail??? Look at Gaza ???

Dan 11.12; And when the multitude is taken away, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail.


204BC (Dan 11:13); Antiochus III pact with Philip V (of Macedon) to share Jerusalem/take from 12 year old Ptolomy V [or Ptolomy IV?]

Dan 11.13; For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, greater than the first. And after some years he shall come on with a great army and abundant supplies.


Antiochus III traveled to Parthia, Batria and even India and made profitable pact with Indian King before making patch with Philip V


Antiochus III staged a second invasion of Coele-Syria. He made an agreement with Philip V of Macedon to conquer and share the Ptolemies' non-Egyptian territories, although this alliance did not last long.



In 205/204 BC the infant Ptolemy V Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus is said (notably by Polybius) to have concluded a secret pact with Philip V of Macedon for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions. Under the terms of this pact, Macedon was to receive the Ptolemaic possessions around the Aegean Sea and Cyrene, while Antiochus would annex Cyprus and Egypt.


204BC (Dan 11:14); all rise against Ptolomy V ...try unsuccessfully to "fulfill vision"

Dan 11.14; “In those times many shall rise against the king of the south, and the violent among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfill the vision, but they shall fail.

??? who arose, and what vision???


Plutarch describes Ptolemy IV as, " was a loose, voluptuous, and effeminate prince,", and again, "besotted with his women and wine". Again that he focused on, "senseless and continuous drinking"

Polybius explains Ptolomy IV actions, "he conducted his reign as if it were a Perpetual Festival, neglected the business of state, made himself difficult to approach, and treated with contempt or indifference those who handled his country's interests abroad."

Upon his father's death, Ptolemy IV poisoned his mother, scalded to his brother to death (his brother was popular with the army). While this type of struggle for power was not foreign to the macedonians, or seleucids back to the Persians and acadians... The royal family in Egypt was an expression of the Sun God. The Father was reborn as the sun, which is why it wasn't gross to marry your family. Each king or pharaoh was the physical holder of the office of god king during their life, and the god-part of the father moved into the sun when the father died ...to kill your mom was to kill your wife (which would not be the first marriage to end in blood), but to kill your brother was to kill your son.... personal note

His government was essentially being run by his mistress Agathoclea , her brother agathocles who Plutarch called "that pimp" and Socibius, one of his advisers. Sociniuss was the man who trained the Egyptians to fight in the ??? Syrian War ... which led to the Egyptian revolt.
--> Ptolomy IV died in 204
--> continuing the standard of government which was almost universally despised, Cecilia's, that pimp agathocles, apparently forged documents to make themselves guardians (or Regents) of the child... a cue that Antiochus IV would exploit to gain power (even though he was actual blood family... Which makes it more justifiable... And all the more cruel).
--> Sosibius died months later, and Agathocles, Agathoclea, and their mother held the power in Egypt.
--> Polybius describes how at this point the mob, led by the army, dragged the family out of the palace into the street. They stripped them naked, and tore them peace from peace in a Savage polybius calls describes, some began to tear them with their teeth, others to stab them, others to gouge out their eyes. As soon as any of them fell, the body was torn limb from limb until they had dismembered them all, for the savagery of the Egyptians is truly appalling when they're of passions have been roused"
...pg 628 in the history of the ancient world


Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died. Philopator's two leading favorites, Agathocles and Sosibius, fearing that Arsinoe would secure the regency, had her murdered before she heard of her husband's death, thereby securing the regency for themselves. However, in 202 BC, Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, put himself at the head of a revolt. Once Epiphanes was in the hands of Tlepolemus he was persuaded to give a sign that his mother's killers should be killed. The child king gave his consent, it is thought more from fear than anything else, and Agathocles along with several of his supporters were killed by the Alexandrian mob



198BC (Dan 11:15-16a); Antiochus III takes Gaza; Ptolomy's Egyptian war depot [5th SW]

Dan 11.15-16a; Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks and take a well-fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, or even his best troops, for there shall be no strength to stand. But he who comes against him shall do as he wills, and none shall stand before him.


Ptolemy IV "Philopator" had made Gaza his chief depot of war material; see 5, 68.
--- Antiochus IV destroyed it in B.C. 198 for its loyalty to the King of Egypt.

...this city didn't surrender to Alexander the great


...book 17 of Polybius is lost


Shutting himself up within the walls of Sidon, after an ineffectual attempt by Ptolemy to relieve him he was ultimately compelled by famine to surrender (Polybius XIII.1-2, XVI.18-19, 39; Josephus, Antiguities XII.3.3; St. Jerome, and Daniel, XI.15-16).


Fifth Syrian War (202–195 BC)
See also: Battle of Panium

The death of Ptolemy IV in 204 BC was followed by a bloody conflict over the regency as his heir, Ptolemy V, was just a child.



The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Ancient Greek: Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Syrian Wars. The Seleucids were led by Antiochus III the Great, while the Ptolemaic army was led by Scopas of Aetolia. The Seleucids won the battle.

The battle was fought near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi), and marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Judea. Some biblical commentators see this battle as being the one referred to in Daniel 11:15, where it says, "Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city."


198BC (Dan 11:16b-17); Antiochus III takes Jerusalem; gives Cleopatra I to marry Ptolomy V

Dan 11.16b-17; And he shall stand in the glorious land, with destruction in his hand. He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of an agreement and perform them. He shall give him the daughter of women to destroy the kingdom, but it shall not stand or be to his advantage.


Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon made a pact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions overseas. Philip seized several islands and populated places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the Battle of Panium (198 BC) definitively transferred Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.

Antiochus then concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra I to Epiphanes in marriage (193–192 BC). Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome, Egypt ranged itself with the latter power.


188BC (Dan 11:18); Roman commander Glabrio (Scipio Asiaticus?) makes Antiochus III sign the Treaty of Apamea at Battle of Magnesia, after three retreats by Antiochus III

Dan 11.18; Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands and shall capture many of them, but a commander shall put an end to his insolence. Indeed, he shall turn his insolence back upon him.


Philip also supported the Romans against Antiochus III (192-189 BC).

In return for his help when Roman forces under Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus moved through Macedon and Thrace in 190 BC, the Romans forgave the remaining indemnity that he had to pay and his son Demetrius was freed. Philip then focused on consolidating power within Macedon. He reorganised the country's internal affairs and finances, mines were reopened, and a new currency was issued.



Antiochus IV's insolence was that he'd bribe (spread

Antiochus III the Great, the Seleucid Emperor, first became involved with Greece when he signed an alliance with King Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC.[1] The treaty stated that Antiochus and Philip would help each other conquer the lands of the young Ptolemaic pharaoh, Ptolemy V.[1]
In 200 BC, Rome first became involved in the affairs of Greece, when two of its allies, Pergamum and Rhodes, who had been fighting Philip in the Cretan War, appealed to the Romans for help.[2] In response to this appeal the Romans sent an army to Greece and attacked Macedon. The Second Macedonian War lasted until 196 BC, and it effectively ended when the Romans and their allies, including the Aetolian League, defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. The treaty's terms forced Philip to pay a war indemnity and become a Roman ally while Rome occupied some areas of Greece.
Meanwhile, Antiochus was fighting the armies of Ptolemy in Coele-Syria in the Fifth Syrian War (201 BC - 195 BC). Antiochus' army crushed the Egyptian army at the Battle of Panium in 201 BC, and by 198 BC, Coele-Syria was in Antiochus' hands.
Antiochus then concentrated on raiding Ptolemaic possessions in Cilicia, Lycia and Caria.[3] While attacking Ptolemy's possessions in Asia Minor, Antiochus sent a fleet to occupy Ptolemy's coastal cities in the area as well as to support Philip.[3] Rhodes, a Roman ally and the strongest naval power in the area became alarmed and sent envoys to Antiochus saying that they would have to oppose him if his fleet passed Chelidonae in Cicilia because they didn't want Philip to receive aid.[4] Antiochus ignored the threat and kept proceeding with his naval movements, but the Rhodians did not act because they had heard that Philip had been defeated at Cynoscephalae and was no longer a threat.[4]
Peace was established in 195 BC with the marriage of Antiochus' daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy. Antiochus' hands were now clear of problems in Asia and he now turned his eyes towards Europe.

Outbreak of the war

Silver coin of Antiochus III
Meanwhile, Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had fought against Rome in the Second Punic War, fled from Carthage to Tyre, and from there he sought refuge at Antiochus' court in Ephesus where the King was deciding what actions to take against Rome.[5]
Because of the continued Roman influence in Greece, the Aetolians, in spite of the philo-Hellenic consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus having just declared Greece "free", now garrisoned Chalcis and Demetrias, which the Romans themselves had argued were key to Macedonia's domination of Greece, and became anti-Roman. They also resented how the Romans had prevented them from reincorporating Echinus and Pharsalus, which had formerly been part of the League, at the end of the Second Macedonian War.[6] In 195 BC, when the Romans decided to invade Sparta, the Aetolians, wanting the Romans to leave Greece, offered to deal with Sparta. However, the Achaean League, not wanting Aetolia's power to grow, refused.[7] The modern historian Erich Gruen has suggested that the Romans may have used the war as an excuse to station a few legions in Greece in order to prevent the Spartans and the Aetolian League from joining the Seleucid King Antiochus III if he invaded Greece.[8]
Having defeated Sparta in 195 BC, the Roman legions under Flamininus left Greece the next year. In 192 BC, a weakened Sparta appealed to the Aetolians for military assistance.[9] The Aetolians responded to this request by sending a unit of 1,000 cavalry.[10] However, after they got there, this force assassinated Nabis, Sparta's last independent ruler, and tried to gain control of Sparta, only to be defeated.[10]

Building on anti-Roman sentiment in Greece, particularly among the city-states of the Aetolian League, Antiochus III led an army across the Hellespont planning to "liberate" it. Antiochus and the Aetolian league failed to gain the support of Philip V of Macedon and the Achaean League. The Romans responded to the invasion by sending an army to Greece which defeated Antiochus' army at Thermopylae.
This defeat proved crushing, and Antiochus was forced to retreat from Greece. The Romans under the command of Scipio Asiaticus followed him across the Aegean. The combined Roman-Rhodian fleet defeated the Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal at the Battle of the Eurymedon and at the Battle of Myonessus. After some fighting in Asia Minor, the Seleucids fought against the armies of Rome and Pergamum at Magnesia. The Roman-Pergamese army won the battle, and Antiochus was forced to retreat.
During the journey back to Italy after the victory at Magnesia and the end of the Syrian war, the consul Manlius Vulso ran into trouble near Cypsela in Thrace. His legions and auxiliaries were marching down a long, narrow wooded track when he was attacked by a force of about 10,000-20,000 Thracian tribesmen. They waited until Vulso's van had passed and before the rearguard had come into view to attack and loot the baggage wagons in the middle of the column. When the Roman troops from the van and rear rushed to the center, a disorderly fight ensued and persisted until the Thracians withdrew at dusk. Both sides suffered heavy losses.

The battle was disastrous for the Seleucids, and Antiochus was forced to come to terms. Amongst the terms of the Treaty of Apamea, Antiochus had to pay 15,000 talents (450 tonnes/990,000 pounds) of silver as a war indemnity, and he was forced to abandon his territory west of the Taurus Mountains. Rhodes gained control over Caria and Lycia, while the Pergamese gained northern Lycia and all of Antiochus' other territories in Asia Minor.


July-3-187BC (Dan 11:19); Antiochus III dies robbing from Baal temple.

Dan 11.19; Then he shall turn his face back toward the fortresses of his own land, but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found.


PER {25 month 3 - B = 3 July} The death of Antiochus III, and accession of Seleucus IV.


* Read Justin's account
@ #BabylChron_BM.35603'R6-8; Diod_28.3'1, 29.15'1; Strab_16'744;(1.18) Joseph:AJ_12'223; Appian:Syr_66; Just_32.2'1-2;* Porph:Fr_47; +[Euseb]:Chron_253, 263; [Vict]:VirIll_54'4;L +Hieron:Chron_1830; Sulpit_2'19; ExcBarb_46A; +Zonar_9'21;(p327) { CAH_8'351; Green_422.}



Timeline from Seleucus IV collecting taxes for Rome (178BC/Dan.11:20) through a elderly Roman senator metaphorically bitch slaping Antiochus IV to stop him from conquering all Egypt (168BC/Dan.11:30a)
178BC (Dan 11:20); Seleucus IV collects taxes for Rome (treaty of Apamea), killed by Heliodorus after his Jerusalem collection trip

Dan 11.20; Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an exactor of tribute for the glory of the kingdom. But within a few days he shall be broken, neither in anger nor in battle.


Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).

He was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an ambitious policy. In an effort to collect money to pay the Romans, he sent his minister Heliodorus to Jerusalem to seize the Jewish temple treasury.

The Bible tells of a prophecy given by a messenger angel in Daniel 11:20 (NLT). The text states that Seleucus "will be remembered as the king who sent a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor." The deuterocanonical lends more to this in 2 Maccabees 3:2-3

On his return from Jerusalem, Heliodorus assassinated Seleucus, and seized the throne for himself.



In the Apocrypha

Around 178 BC Seleucus sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to collect money to pay the Romans. There may be a reference to this in Daniel 11:20, "He will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor". 2 Maccabees 3:21-28 reports that Heliodorus entered the Temple in Jerusalem in order to take its treasure, but was turned back by three spiritual beings who manifested themselves as human beings .

2 Maccabees 3:34-36 records that Heliodorus received "orders from God" to "proclaim to all men the majesty of God's power" .

It is believed that on his return from Jerusalem, he killed the king and seized the throne for himself; but it was not long before Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the brother of the late king, with the help of the Pergamon monarch, Eumenes II, recovered it.

The Heliodorus stele, a Greek-language inscription of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, is dated to 178 BCE. In this stele, Seleucus informs Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. While this part of the inscription comes from the trade of antiquities, an additional fragment from the same inscription was found in 2005 in an underground basement of a Hellenistic house in Maresha.

Heliodorus in the Arts


Sept-3-175BC (Dan 11:21); Antiochus IV returned after 1 yr as Rome's prisoner, gets guardianship of Selucis IV's son (the one not taken to Rome), and kills him a few years later ...to become king

Dan 11.21; In his place shall arise a contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given. He shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.


Antiochus was a member of the HellenisticGreek Seleucid dynasty and was the son and potential successor of King Antiochus III, and as such he became a political hostage of the Roman Republic following the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. His older brother Seleucus IV followed his father onto the throne in 187 BC, and Antiochus was exchanged for his nephew Demetrius I Soter (the son and heir of Seleucus). King Seleucus was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus in 175 BC, but Antiochus in turn ousted him. Seleucus' legitimate heir Demetrius I Soter was still a hostage in Rome, so Antiochus seized the throne for himself with the help of King Eumenes II of Pergamum, proclaiming himself co-regent with another son of Seleucus, an infant named Antiochus (whom he then murdered a few years later).




Antiochus took power after the death of Seleucus Philopator. He had been hostage in Rome following the peace of Apamea in 188 B.C.E. but had recently been exchanged for the son and rightful heir of Seleucus IV, the later Demetrius I of Syria. Taking advantage of this situation, Antiochus was able to proclaim himself as co-regent with another of Seleucus' sons, the infant Antiochus, whose murder he orchestrated a few years later.


175BC (Dan 11:22); Jewish brothers buy high priesthood from Antiochus IV

Dan 11.22; Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, even the prince of the covenant.


When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE,
... Onias III held the office of High Priest in Jerusalem.

To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint or dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed.
...Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead of Onias. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and "received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch".


175-170BC (Dan 11:23); Antiochus IV alliance with Rome & adopts Rome's "appearance-of-shared-power" leadership model

Dan 11.23. And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people.


Rome asked Antiochus IV for allegiance with Perseus (Macedon). He agreed to have none.
- Livy, "History of Rome" vol6, 42.36. (paraphrase)

Antiochus also tried to interact with common people by appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices, and his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Antiochus IV Epiphanes
- Polybius 26.10


175-170BC (Dan 11:24); takes bids for High Priest to fix Jewish revolts

Dan 11.24; Without warning he shall come into the richest parts of the province, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his fathers' fathers have done, scattering among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time.


In turn, Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason.
... Menelaus had Onias assassinated.

Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple; the resulting riots led to the death of Lysimachus.
...Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble.

Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children" (168 BCE).
...From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy in the Seleucid satrapies of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.


170-169BC (Dan 11:25-26); Sixth Syrian War; Egypt king betrayed by friends, and army swept away

Dan 11.25-26; And he shall stir up his power and his heart against the king of the south with a great army. And the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army, but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him. Even those who eat his food shall break him. His army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain.


In 170, Eulaeus and Lenaeus, the two regents of the young king of Egypt Ptolemy VI Philometor, declared war on the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes. In the same year, Ptolemy's younger siblings Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra II were declared co-rulers in order to bolster the unity of Egypt. Military operations did not begin until 169 when Antiochus quickly gained the upper hand, seizing the important strategic town of Pelusium. The Egyptians realised their folly in starting the war, Eulaeus and Lenaeus were overthrown and replaced by two new regents, Comanus and Cineas, and envoys were sent to negotiate a peace treaty with Antiochus. Antiochus took Ptolemy VI (who was his nephew) under his guardianship, giving him effective control of Egypt.



170: Outbreak of the Sixth Syrian War.

The Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes prepares himself and strikes first:

169: Antiochus invades Egypt, captures Memphis, and demands that Ptolemy VI receives other advisers (Comanus and Cineas). He presents himself as protector of the king. Greek embassies to negotiate an armistice are sent back. In Alexandria, people demand that Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VIII become king.

Antiochus retreats (keeping Pelusion) and leaves the war to Ptolemy VI; in the winter, the Ptolemaic rulers are reconciled, which puts an end to Antiochus' ambition to keep the two brothers fighting against each other




169-168BC (Dan 11:27); Antiochus IV leaves Ptolomy VI king in Egypt, but not yet the end.

Dan 11.27; And as for the two kings, their hearts shall be bent on doing evil. They shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail, for the end is yet to be at the time appointed.


However, this was unacceptable to the people of Alexandria who responded by proclaiming Ptolemy Physcon as sole king. Antiochus besieged Alexandria but he was unable to cut communications to the city so, at the end of 169, he withdrew his army.



Wars against Egypt

Main article: Sixth Syrian War

The guardians of King Ptolemy VI Philometordemanded the return of Coele-Syria in 170 BC, but Antiochus launched a preemptive strike against Egypt, conquering all but Alexandriaand capturing King Ptolemy. To avoid alarming Rome, Antiochus allowed Ptolemy VI to continue ruling as a puppet king. Upon Antiochus' withdrawal, the city of Alexandria chose a new king, one of Ptolemy's brothers, also named Ptolemy (VIII Euergetes). The Ptolemy brothers ruled Egypt jointly.


169-168BC (Dan 11:28); Antiochus IV returns from Egypt

Dan 11.28; And he shall return to his land with great wealth, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. And he shall work his will and return to his own land.


170-168: Sixth Syrian War: Ptolemy VI Philometor -who is too young to rule- attacks the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus IV builds a navy (against the terms of the Peace of Apamea) and conquers Cyprus and large parts of Egypt and presents himself as protector of Ptolemy VI against his relatives Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon and Cleopatra II

Livy http://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iv-epiphanes/

168BC (Dan 11:29-30a): Elderly Roman draws circle around Antiochus IV with demand to answer if he was going to submit to Rome's demands.

Dan 11:29-30a - At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but it shall not be this time as it was before. For ships of Kittim (aka. Cyprus) shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw


In 168 BC, Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet to capture Cyprus. Before he reached Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single elderly Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas who delivered a message from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council, whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and said: "Before you cross this circle, I want you to give me a reply for the Roman Senate." This implied Rome would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.

or: Polybius 29.27.4, Livy 45.12.4ff.

Timeline from Antiochus IV rewarding Jews who broke God's law (168BC/Dan.11:30b) through his death (164BC/Dan.11:44)
168-167 (Dan 11:30b): Active rewarding of those betraying God

Dan 11.30b: , and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and pay attention to those who forsake the holy covenant.


Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadelcalled the Acra.
The date of Antiochus's persecution of the Jews in Jerusalem is variously given as 168 or 167 BC. In their commentary on the Book of Daniel, Newsom and Breed argue for 167, although they state that good arguments can be made for either chronology.


168-167BC (Dan 11:31); Set up the Abomination of Desolation

Dan 11.31; Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the regular burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate.


Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and immediately adopted his father's previous policy of universal Hellenisation. The Jews rebelled again and Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force. Considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were officially outlawed. When Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs (the usual sacrifice offered to the Greek gods in the Hellenic religion), their anger began to spiral. When a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest (Mattathias) killed him. In 167 BCE, the Jews rose up en masse behind Mattathias and his five sons to fight and win their freedom from Seleucid authority. Mattathias' son Judas Maccabaeus, now called "The Hammer", re-dedicated the temple in 165 BCE and the Jews celebrate this event to this day as a major part of the festival of Hanukkah.


167BC (Dan 11:32-35); Maccabean revolt and Hanukkah

Dan 11.32-35; He shall seduce with flattery those who violate the covenant, but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action. And the wise among the people shall make many understand, though for some days they shall stumble by sword and flame, by captivity and plunder. When they stumble, they shall receive a little help. And many shall join themselves to them with flattery, and some of the wise shall stumble, so that they may be refined, purified, and made white, until the time of the end, for it still awaits the appointed time.


The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean revolt.[11]:238

According to the authors of the Books of Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.[12]

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14
Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed (168 BC) because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

Mina of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Traditionally, as expressed in the First and Second Books of the Maccabees, the Maccabean Revolt was painted as a national resistance to a foreign political and cultural oppression. In modern times, however, scholars have argued that the king was instead intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews in the country and the Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem.[13][14][15] According to Joseph P. Schultz:

Modern scholarship on the other hand considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp.[16]

It seems that the traditionalists, with Hebrew/Aramaic names such as Onias, contested with the Hellenizers, with Greek names such as Jason and Menelaus, over who would be the High Priest.[17] Other authors have pointed to the possibility of socioeconomic motives, as well as religious ones, as having been primary drivers of the civil war.[18]

What began in many respects as a civil war escalated when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews in their conflict with the traditionalists.[19] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus took the side of the Hellenizers by prohibiting the religious practices around which the traditionalists had rallied. This could explain why the king banned the traditional religion of a whole people, in a total departure from typical Seleucid practice in other settings.[20]


167BC (Dan 11:36-39); Antiochus IV; Syrian King who demanded to be worshiped as God in Temple with pigs blood

Dan 11.36-39; “And the king shall do as he wills. He shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is decreed shall be done. 37 He shall pay no attention to the gods of his fathers, or to the one beloved by women. He shall not pay attention to any other god, for he shall magnify himself above all. 38 He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these. A god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god. Those who acknowledge him he shall load with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.[f]


In 169, however, while Antiochus was campaigning in Egypt, Jason conquered Jerusalem—with the exception of the citadel—and murdered many adherents of his rival Menelaus. When Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 he took Jerusalem by storm and enforced its Hellenization. The city forfeited its privileges and was permanently garrisoned by Syrian soldiers.



The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean Revolt.:238

Books of Maccabees

According to the authors of the Books of the Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jasongathered a force of 1000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 168 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

167-164BC (Dan 11:40-43); Antiochus IV; Conquest by Force

Dan 11.40-43; “At the time of the end, the king of the south shall attack him, but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships. And he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Cushites shall follow in his train.

- Edom
- Moab
- Ammonites (main part)

- Egypt
- Libia
- Cush

King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.[citation needed]
Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC.
According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.
According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he was horrifically injured in the following manner, which eventually led to his death:

5 But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him with an incurable and invisible blow. As soon as he stopped speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels, for which there was no relief, and with sharp internal tortures— 6 and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions. 7 Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to drive even faster. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body. 8 Thus he who only a little while before had thought in his superhuman arrogance that he could command the waves of the sea, and had imagined that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.

— 2 Maccabees 9:5-9, NRSV


Jewish tradition

Antiochus IV ruled the Jews from 175 to 164 BC. He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees and the "Scroll of Antiochus".Rabbinical sources refer to him as הרשע harasha ("the wicked"); the Jewish Encyclopedia concluded that "[s]ince Jewish and heathen sources agree in their characterization of him, their portrayal is evidently correct", summarizing this portrayal as one of a cruel and vainglorious ruler who tried to force on all the peoples of his realm a Hellenic culture, "the true essence of which he can scarcely be said to have appreciated".Whether Antiochus's policy was directed at extermination of Judaism as a culture and a religion, though, is debatable on the grounds that his persecution was limited to Judea and Samaria (Jews in the diaspora were exempt), and that Antiochus was hardly an ideologically motivated Hellenizer. Erich S. Gruen suggests that, instead, he was driven more by pragmatics such as the need to gather income from Judea.

164BC (Dan 11:44); Antiochus IV - final years, and meets Death

Dan 11.44; But news from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go out with great fury to destroy and devote many to destruction. And he shall pitch his palatial tents between the sea and the glorious holy mountain. Yet he shall come to his end, with none to help him.


Final years

King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.

Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. [21]

According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.[22] According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he died in the following manner:

Punishment of Antiochus, engraving by Gustave Doré
But the all-seeing Lord, the God of
Israel, struck him an incurable and
unseen blow. As soon as he ceased
speaking he was seized with a pain in
his bowels for which there was no relief
and with sharp internal tortures - and
that very justly, for he had tortured the
bowels of others with many and strange
inflictions. Yet he did not in any way
stop his insolence, but was even more
filled with arrogance, breathing fire in
his rage against the Jews, and giving
orders to hasten the journey. And so it
came about that he fell out of his
chariot as it was rushing along, and the
fall was so hard as to torture every limb
of his body.[23]

167-29AD (Dan 12:1); Michael gets up, those in Book of Life are protected

Dan 12. 1a; At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time.


Michael is angel over virtue.

Completion of Daniel's prophesy through Jesus(Joshua) and description of what follows
30AD (Dan 12:2-3); Christ Conquers Death

Dan 12:1b-3; But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book. And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Dan 12:4; *Daniel shut up and seal book / Knowledge will increase

Dan 12. 4; But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end. Many will run back and forth, and knowledge will be increased.”

Perspective Prayer
We grow in a world infected with lie's ability to starve good into evil. Thankfully; good an evil have recognizable fruit. Regrettably; we are weak at recognizing the difference.

We aren't following the complete good news, because we want everyone to be OK... and have our churches be run by money ...and function under our control... and the problem is we don't get to choose the rules - only follow.

Perspective Prayer

(culturally paraphrased version of Daniel 9:4-19)





Time Markers

Eternity ∞

01. Pre Big Bang (pre-billions BC)



Billions BC

02. Time and Matter separate, and Death is created




Millions BC

03. 1st Five Extinctions of Earth




10,000s BC

04. Humans and gods




2,100 BC

05. I AM enters politics




660 BC

06. Combined written history




336 BC

07. History's timestamp named Alexander


336 bc - perspectives


30 AD

08. The Christ of Jerusalem

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70 AD

09. I AM leaves politics

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313 AD

10. Christianity becomes a national identity

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632 AD

11. Mohammad dies and Islam begins

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1054 AD

12. Church is so confused, it splits

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1517 AD

13. “The Church” splinters into individuality

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1833 AD

14. Owning a human is illegal

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1945 AD

15. World fights conquering through force

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1989 AD

16. Knowledge is shared around the world

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