Daniel's chapter appear to be all mixed up - based on which kings ruled in what order

Let the reader understand – Part 1

Daniel’s tomb

Having just completed a project requiring over a decade of research on the four Gospels of Jesus, there is one point in Matthew and Mark which has been festering in my mind for years. At the same point in these two of the gospel stories that both writers specifically direct, “let the reader understand.” And… most Christians today (myself included) have had little idea what this references… or why it’s important enough to demand understanding in the middle of Jesus’ story.

What we readers are to understand comes from one of the most praised figures in all of the Jewish scriptures. Perhaps the most influential of all of Jerusalem’s sons throughout history; Daniel influenced and governed nations within great middle east empires ranging from Nebuchadnezzar to Cyrus the Great to Darius the Great.

Daniel is the prophet quoted in the two Gospels (Matt. 24:15 and Mark 13:14) stating,

 

“…when you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place where it ought not (let the reader understand)…” 

– Two Gospels quoted (with details combined)

 

 


Understanding this reference starts with knowing the order of

Daniel’s book.

The book of Daniel carries some of the most commonly told Bible stories. Many a Sunday School felt board has depicted Daniel in the lion’s den, and Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego being thrown into a fiery furnace. While these stories are familiar to most who attended Sunday School as a kid, these stories don’t quote the reference we are to understand, but they do bookend the layout of Daniel… which is the point of Part One in this series entitled, “Let the reader understand.”

 

The order of Daniel’s chapters are a little mixed up… on purpose.

Before crying out heresy and blocking this blog, I admit that I’m convinced it was on purpose. After all, Daniel was told to “shut up the words, and seal the book” by the one who gave him the revelation(s). While there are a number of ways in which Daniel conceals the details of his prophesies, the first one to take into account is the order with which his stories (chapters in today’s Bible) are lined up.

Daniel 12:4 states, “But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end.” A first breadcrumb to Matthew and Mark’s required understanding is… how did Daniel “shut up”and “seal” the words of his book?

 

Anyway; One plausible piece of how Daniel “shut up” his book to “seal” it, is uncovered through correlating humanity’s written history of that part of the world during Daniel’s life.

 


Daniel’s historic order of chapters:

Ch. 1-4, 7-8, 5, 10, 9, 11-12, 6.

I recognize that this is a lot to accept from a blog you just came across, but with a few more minutes of explanation and focus on historic verification through systematic referencing of Daniel and legitimate historical references… this CAN be understood… and understanding is a good start to following the Gospel writer’s instruction for any who read their books to understand.

The order of Daniel’s chapters, while feeling exceptionally abrasive to any who have claimed the Bible as their source for decades (like me), is the historic outline of these chapters, and IS verifiable by Daniel’s chapter headings introductions which identify who was the king of Babylon for each of his chapters (although the chapter breaks were added centuries afterward).

To lay out this historically chronological overview of Daniel’s book, and the order with which the chapters take place, each of the references will be linked to reliable sources outside of this blog.

Resources used in arranging Daniel's chapters:

  1. Daniel references will direct to BibleGateway.com so that (once clicked) you will be able to read the reference in your favorite version of the Bible.
  2. For sake of completeness and preference, the historical references will be linked to:
    1. Encyclopedia.com - is the primary source, because it is a combination of hundreds of encyclopedias such as Oxford University Press and Colombia University Press.
    2. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA (because that is what I used for term papers in High School)... and it uses that cool "Æ" character in its name, and
    3. Wikipedia - with all its faults, it's typically a first source for information verification (as faulted as some information is). This is, however, a great place to get resources for further study. Wikipedia is used in the descriptions of time which have large segements of Babylon kingship not referenced in Daniel.  

 



Historic outline of Daniel’s chapters:


(Remember that dates which are “BC” count down as they get closer to now. Daniel’s age is deduced a guess, added for lifespan perspective.)

 

  • Chapter 1 – 597 BC (Daniel at ~17 years old)

    Jerusalem’s conquest starts year one of Daniel’s book, when his home was moved from Jerusalem to Babylon. Daniel chooses to eat vegetables (rather than food offered to idols) and obtains permission and distinction.

Ch. 1 - 597 BC references

 

Daniel 1 complete text

In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. The Lorda]">[a] gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God;b]">[b] and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god. He brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.

The king spoke to Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring in some of the children of Israel, even of the royal offspringc]">[c] and of the nobles; youths in whom was no defect, but well-favored, and skillful in all wisdom, and endowed with knowledge, and understanding science, and who had the ability to stand in the king’s palace; and that he should teach them the learning and the language of the Chaldeans. The king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s dainties, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at its end they should stand before the king.

Now among these were of the children of Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. The prince of the eunuchs gave names to them: to Daniel he gave the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.

But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s dainties, nor with the wine which he drank. Therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. Now God made Daniel find kindness and compassion in the sight of the prince of the eunuchs. 10 The prince of the eunuchs said to Daniel, “I fear my lord the king, who has appointed your food and your drink. For why should he see your faces worse looking than the youths who are of your own age? Then you would endanger my head with the king.”

11 Then Daniel said to the steward whom the prince of the eunuchs had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 12 “Test your servants, I beg you, ten days; and let them give us vegetables to eat, and water to drink. 13 Then let our faces be examined before you, and the face of the youths who eat of the king’s dainties; and as you see, deal with your servants.” 14 So he listened to them in this matter, and tested them for ten days.

15 At the end of ten days, their faces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths who ate of the king’s dainties. 16 So the steward took away their dainties, and the wine that they were given to drink, and gave them vegetables.

17 Now as for these four youths, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom; and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams.

18 At the end of the days which the king had appointed for bringing them in, the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar. 19 The king talked with them; and among them all was found no one like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Therefore stood they before the king. 20 In every matter of wisdom and understanding, concerning which the king inquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters who were in all his realm.

21 Daniel continued even to the first year of king Cyrus.

Footnotes:

  1. 1:2 The word translated “Lord” is “Adonai.”
  2. 1:2 The Hebrew word rendered “God” is “אֱלֹהִ֑ים” (Elohim).
  3. 1:3 or, seed
World English Bible (WEB)

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  • Chapter 2 – 596 BC (Daniel ~18 years old)

    The king has a dream and gives the magicians and wise-men charge of telling him what he dreamed… and then the interpretation – or he’d kill them all.  They (of course) have no response, but Daniel asks for time… and then God reveals to him a dream and interpretation. The reward and praise that follows grants Daniel a placement in the king’s court and promotes his three friends to ruling positions in Babylon.

Daniel 2 complete text

 In the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams; and his spirit was troubled, and his sleep went from him. Then the king commanded that the magicians, the enchanters, the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans be called to tell the king his dreams. So they came in and stood before the king. The king said to them, “I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit is troubled to know the dream.”

Then the Chaldeans spoke to the king in the Syrian language, “O king, live forever! Tell your servants the dream, and we will show the interpretation.”

The king answered the Chaldeans, “The thing has gone from me. If you don’t make known to me the dream and its interpretation, you will be cut in pieces, and your houses will be made a dunghill. But if you show the dream and its interpretation, you will receive from me gifts, rewards, and great honor. Therefore show me the dream and its interpretation.”

They answered the second time and said, “Let the king tell his servants the dream, and we will show the interpretation.”

The king answered, “I know of a certainty that you are trying to gain time, because you see the thing has gone from me. But if you don’t make known to me the dream, there is but one law for you; for you have prepared lying and corrupt words to speak before me, until the situation changes. Therefore tell me the dream, and I will know that you can show me its interpretation.”

10 The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, “There is not a man on the earth who can show the king’s matter, because no king, lord, or ruler, has asked such a thing of any magician, enchanter, or Chaldean. 11 It is a rare thing that the king requires, and there is no other who can show it before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.”

12 Because of this, the king was angry and very furious, and commanded that all the wise men of Babylon be destroyed. 13 So the decree went out, and the wise men were to be slain. They sought Daniel and his companions to be slain.

14 Then Daniel returned answer with counsel and prudence to Arioch the captain of the king’s guard, who had gone out to kill the wise men of Babylon. 15 He answered Arioch the king’s captain, “Why is the decree so urgent from the king?” Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel. 16 Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would appoint him a time, and he would show the king the interpretation.

17 Then Daniel went to his house and made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions: 18 that they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his companions would not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. 19 Then the secret was revealed to Daniel in a vision of the night. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven. 20 Daniel answered,

24 Therefore Daniel went in to Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon. He went and said this to him: “Don’t destroy the wise men of Babylon. Bring me in before the king, and I will show to the king the interpretation.”

25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said this to him: “I have found a man of the children of the captivity of Judah who will make known to the king the interpretation.”

26 The king answered Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, “Are you able to make known to me the dream which I have seen, and its interpretation?”

27 Daniel answered before the king, and said, “The secret which the king has demanded can’t be shown to the king by wise men, enchanters, magicians, or soothsayers; 28 but there is a God in heaven who reveals secrets, and he has made known to king Nebuchadnezzar what will be in the latter days. Your dream, and the visions of your head on your bed, are these:

29 “As for you, O king, your thoughts came on your bed, what should happen hereafter; and he who reveals secrets has made known to you what will happen. 30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but to the intent that the interpretation may be made known to the king, and that you may know the thoughts of your heart.

31 “You, O king, saw, and behold,a]">[a] a great image. This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was excellent, stood before you; and its appearance was terrifying. 32 As for this image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of bronze, 33 its legs of iron, its feet part of iron, and part of clay. 34 You saw until a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image on its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold were broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors. The wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them. The stone that struck the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.

36 “This is the dream; and we will tell its interpretation before the king. 37 You, O king, are king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the strength, and the glory. 38 Wherever the children of men dwell, he has given the animals of the field and the birds of the sky into your hand, and has made you rule over them all. You are the head of gold.

39 “After you, another kingdom will arise that is inferior to you; and another third kingdom of bronze, which will rule over all the earth. 40 The fourth kingdom will be strong as iron, because iron breaks in pieces and subdues all things; and as iron that crushes all these, it will break in pieces and crush. 41 Whereas you saw the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, it will be a divided kingdom; but there will be in it of the strength of the iron, because you saw the iron mixed with miry clay. 42 As the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom will be partly strong, and partly broken. 43 Whereas you saw the iron mixed with miry clay, they will mingle themselves with the seed of men; but they won’t cling to one another, even as iron does not mix with clay.

44 “In the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, nor will its sovereignty be left to another people; but it will break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it will stand forever. 45 Because you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God has made known to the king what will happen hereafter. The dream is certain, and its interpretation sure.”

46 Then king Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face, worshiped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an offering and sweet odors to him. 47 The king answered to Daniel, and said, “Of a truth your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, since you have been able to reveal this secret.”

48 Then the king made Daniel great, and gave him many great gifts, and made him rule over the whole province of Babylon, and to be chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon. 49 Daniel requested of the king, and he appointed Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego over the affairs of the province of Babylon; but Daniel was in the king’s gate.

 

 

 

  • Chapter 3 and 4 – occurs some time between 595 and 570 BC (Daniel age 19-44)

    nebuchadnezzar-dreams-result with him crawling on all fours like an ox

    Chapter three and four describes Nebuchadnezzar making a statue of himself to be worshiped (which doesn’t work too well for Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego… until God shows up and turns their death sentence into favor).

    Chapter 4 is a letter the king writes praising Daniel. Daniel interprets another dream, and delivers bad news to Nebuchadnezzar.

    Finally after 12 months, the king is praising himself… which results in being forced to live as a wild animal for seven years… just like Daniel predicted.  

Ch. 4 - Letter from the King, future archaeological find/translation expected

** Chapter four is one of a few references in Daniel to a letter the king wrote and sent out to his kingdom. Considering there are so many writings in these languages which have not yet been translated, (when it is found) this will be another proof test that Daniel was written in the time it claims. Sooner or later, some (if not all) of these letters the kings of Daniel wrote will be found in our ancient tablets. Those who claim Daniel couldn't be written in the time it claims will have a greater difficulty denying God's influence in human affairs (but they still will). 

Daniel 3-4 complete text

Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was sixty cubits,a]">[a] and its width six cubits. He set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the local governors, the deputies, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counselors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. Then the local governors, the deputies, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counselors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together to the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up.

Then the herald cried aloud, “To you it is commanded, peoples, nations, and languages, that whenever you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music, you fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king has set up. Whoever doesn’t fall down and worship shall be cast into the middle of a burning fiery furnace the same hour.”

Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshiped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up.

Therefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and brought accusation against the Jews. They answered Nebuchadnezzar the king, “O king, live for ever! 10 You, O king, have made a decree that every man who hears the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music shall fall down and worship the golden image; 11 and whoever doesn’t fall down and worship shall be cast into the middle of a burning fiery furnace. 12 There are certain Jews whom you have appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. These men, O king, have not respected you. They don’t serve your gods, and don’t worship the golden image which you have set up.”

13 Then Nebuchadnezzar in rage and fury commanded that Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego be brought. Then these men were brought before the king. 14 Nebuchadnezzar answered them, “Is it on purpose, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you don’t serve my god, nor worship the golden image which I have set up? 15 Now if you are ready whenever you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, lyre, harp, pipe, and all kinds of music to fall down and worship the image which I have made, good; but if you don’t worship, you shall be cast the same hour into the middle of a burning fiery furnace. Who is that god who will deliver you out of my hands?”

16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered the king, “Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer you in this matter. 17 If it happens, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace; and he will deliver us out of your hand, O king. 18 But if not, let it be known to you, O king, that we will not serve your gods or worship the golden image which you have set up.”

19 Then Nebuchadnezzar was full of fury, and the form of his appearance was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. He spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was usually heated. 20 He commanded certain mighty men who were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace. 21 Then these men were bound in their pants, their tunics, and their mantles, and their other clothes, and were cast into the middle of the burning fiery furnace. 22 Therefore because the king’s commandment was urgent, and the furnace exceedingly hot, the flame of the fire killed those men who took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. 23 These three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell down bound into the middle of the burning fiery furnace.

24 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonished and rose up in haste. He spoke and said to his counselors, “Didn’t we cast three men bound into the middle of the fire?”

They answered the king, “True, O king.”

25 He answered, “Look, I see four men loose, walking in the middle of the fire, and they are unharmed. The appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.”

26 Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace. He spoke and said, “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, you servants of the Most High God, come out, and come here!”

Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego came out of the middle of the fire. 27 The local governors, the deputies, and the governors, and the king’s counselors, being gathered together, saw these men, that the fire had no power on their bodies. The hair of their head wasn’t singed. Their pants weren’t changed, the smell of fire wasn’t even on them.

28 Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said, “Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who has sent his angel and delivered his servants who trusted in him, and have changed the king’s word, and have yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God. 29 Therefore I make a decree, that every people, nation, and language, which speak anything evil against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill; because there is no other god who is able to deliver like this.”

30 Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon.

Nebuchadnezzar the king,

to all the peoples, nations, and languages, who dwell in all the earth:

Peace be multiplied to you.

It has seemed good to me to show the signs and wonders that the Most High God has worked toward me.

I, Nebuchadnezzar, was at rest in my house, and flourishing in my palace. I saw a dream which made me afraid; and the thoughts on my bed and the visions of my head troubled me. Therefore I made a decree to bring in all the wise men of Babylon before me, that they might make known to me the interpretation of the dream. Then the magicians, the enchanters, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers came in; and I told the dream before them; but they didn’t make known to me its interpretation. But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods. I told the dream before him, saying,

“Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in you, and no secret troubles you, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and its interpretation. 10 These were the visions of my head on my bed: I saw, and behold, a tree in the middle of the earth; and its height was great. 11 The tree grew, and was strong, and its height reached to the sky, and its sight to the end of all the earth. 12 Its leaves were beautiful, and it had much fruit, and in it was food for all. The animals of the field had shade under it, and the birds of the sky lived in its branches, and all flesh was fed from it.

13 “I saw in the visions of my head on my bed, and behold, a watcher and a holy one came down from the sky. 14 He cried aloud, and said this, ‘Cut down the tree, and cut off its branches! Shake off its leaves and scatter its fruit! Let the animals get away from under it, and the fowls from its branches. 15 Nevertheless leave the stump of its roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and bronze, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of the sky. Let his portion be with the animals in the grass of the earth. 16 Let his heart be changed from man’s, and let an animal’s heart be given to him. Then let seven times pass over him.

17 “‘The sentence is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones; to the intent that the living may know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever he will, and sets up over it the lowest of men.’

18 “This dream I, king Nebuchadnezzar, have seen; and you, Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation, because all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known to me the interpretation; but you are able; for the spirit of the holy gods is in you.”

19 Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was stricken mute for a while, and his thoughts troubled him. The king answered, “Belteshazzar, don’t let the dream, or the interpretation, trouble you.”

Belteshazzar answered, “My lord, may the dream be for those who hate you, and its interpretation to your adversaries. 20 The tree that you saw, which grew, and was strong, whose height reached to the sky, and its sight to all the earth; 21 whose leaves were beautiful, and its fruit plentiful, and in it was food for all; under which the animals of the field lived, and on whose branches the birds of the sky had their habitation: 22 it is you, O king, that have grown and become strong; for your greatness has grown, and reaches to the sky, and your dominion to the end of the earth.

23 “Whereas the king saw a watcher and a holy one coming down from the sky, and saying, ‘Cut down the tree, and destroy it; nevertheless leave the stump of its roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and bronze, in the tender grass of the field, and let it be wet with the dew of the sky. Let his portion be with the animals of the field, until seven times pass over him.’

24 “This is the interpretation, O king, and it is the decree of the Most High, which has come on my lord the king: 25 that you shall be driven from men, and your dwelling shall be with the animals of the field. You shall be made to eat grass as oxen, and shall be wet with the dew of the sky, and seven times shall pass over you; until you know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever he will. 26 Whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the roots of the tree; your kingdom shall be sure to you, after that you will have known that the heavens do rule. 27 Therefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you, and break off your sins by righteousness, and your iniquities by showing mercy to the poor. Perhaps there may be a lengthening of your tranquility.”

28 All this came on the king Nebuchadnezzar. 29 At the end of twelve months he was walking in the royal palace of Babylon. 30 The king spoke and said, “Is not this great Babylon, which I have built for the royal dwelling place, by the might of my power and for the glory of my majesty?”

31 While the word was in the king’s mouth, a voice came from the sky, saying, “O king Nebuchadnezzar, to you it is spoken: ‘The kingdom has departed from you. 32 You shall be driven from men; and your dwelling shall be with the animals of the field. You shall be made to eat grass as oxen. Seven times shall pass over you, until you know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, and gives it to whomever he will.’”

33 This was fulfilled the same hour on Nebuchadnezzar. He was driven from men, and ate grass as oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of the sky, until his hair had grown like eagles’ feathers, and his nails like birds’ claws.

34 At the end of the days I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted up my eyes to heaven, and my understanding returned to me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honored him who lives forever;

36 At the same time my understanding returned to me; and for the glory of my kingdom, my majesty and brightness returned to me. My counselors and my lords sought me; and I was established in my kingdom, and excellent greatness was added to me. 37 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven; for all his works are truth, and his ways justice; and those who walk in pride he is able to abase.

Footnotes:

  1. 3:1 A cubit is the length from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow on a man’s arm, or about 18 inches or 46 centimeters.
World English Bible (WEB)

by Public Domain. The name "World English Bible" is trademarked.

 

 


 

 

  • Chapter 7 – 556 BC (Daniel age 58)

    Chapter seven picks up in the first year of Belshazzar’s reign over Babylon.  Daniel (whose previous greatness was multiple decades and kings in the past) had a dream that began with a picture of their national symbol being desecrated, and then referenced three other beasts… which will come to symbolize the Persian/Medes, the Greeks with Alexander the Great, and the Romans. This left Daniel quite scared (with good reason).   

Daniel 7 complete text

 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel had a dream and visions of his head on his bed. Then he wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters.

Daniel spoke and said, “I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the sky broke out on the great sea. Four great animals came up from the sea, different from one another.

“The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings. I watched until its wings were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made to stand on two feet as a man. A man’s heart was given to it.

“Behold, there was another animal, a second, like a bear. It was raised up on one side, and three ribs were in its mouth between its teeth. They said this to it: ‘Arise! Devour much flesh!’

“After this I saw, and behold, another, like a leopard, which had on its back four wings of a bird. The animal also had four heads; and dominion was given to it.

“After this I saw in the night visions, and, behold, there was a fourth animal, awesome and powerful, and exceedingly strong. It had great iron teeth. It devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet. It was different from all the animals that were before it. It had ten horns.

“I considered the horns, and behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots: and behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things.

11 “I watched at that time because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke. I watched even until the animal was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given to be burned with fire. 12 As for the rest of the animals, their dominion was taken away; yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.

13 “I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14 Dominion was given him, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which will not pass away, and his kingdom one that which will not be destroyed.

15 “As for me, Daniel, my spirit was grieved within my body, and the visions of my head troubled me. 16 I came near to one of those who stood by, and asked him the truth concerning all this.

“So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things. 17 ‘These great animals, which are four, are four kings, who will arise out of the earth. 18 But the saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom forever, even forever and ever.’

19 “Then I desired to know the truth concerning the fourth animal, which was different from all of them, exceedingly terrible, whose teeth were of iron, and its nails of bronze; which devoured, broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; 20 and concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up, and before which three fell, even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke great things, whose look was more stout than its fellows. 21 I saw, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, 22 until the ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High, and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.

23 “So he said, ‘The fourth animal will be a fourth kingdom on earth, which will be different from all the kingdoms, and will devour the whole earth, and will tread it down, and break it in pieces. 24 As for the ten horns, ten kings will arise out of this kingdom. Another will arise after them; and he will be different from the former, and he will put down three kings. 25 He will speak words against the Most High, and will wear out the saints of the Most High. He will plan to change the times and the law; and they will be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time.

26 “‘But the judgment will be set, and they will take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it to the end. 27 The kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole sky, will be given to the people of the saints of the Most High. His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions will serve and obey him.’

28 “Here is the end of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts troubled me greatly, and my face was changed in me; but I kept the matter in my heart.”

 

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  • Chapter 8 – 553 BC (Daniel age 61)gabriel the arch angel

    Chapter eight picks up two years later in the third year of Belshazzar’s kingship over Babylon. Daniel was in Suza (where Daniel’s tomb is located today), and dreamed about a ram running around under his own authority. Then a little piece of that ram ending God’s worship (as represented by giving Yahweh food and drink offerings in Jerusalem’s temple, which is where God/Yahweh lived and ate and drank).  Then, there was a completely different animal (a goat) from the west which showed up to destroy them all and take over his own rule. Daniel was again sick with worry, but continued his job working for the King. 

Daniel 8 complete text

In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar, a vision appeared to me, even to me, Daniel, after that which appeared to me at the first. I saw the vision. Now it was so, that when I saw, I was in the citadel of Susa, which is in the province of Elam. I saw in the vision, and I was by the river Ulai. Then I lifted up my eyes, and saw, and behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns. The two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, northward, and southward. No animals could stand before him. There wasn’t any who could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself.

As I was considering, behold, a male goat came from the west over the surface of the whole earth, and didn’t touch the ground. The goat had a notable horn between his eyes. He came to the ram that had the two horns, which I saw standing before the river, and ran on him in the fury of his power. I saw him come close to the ram, and he was moved with anger against him, and struck the ram, and broke his two horns. There was no power in the ram to stand before him; but he cast him down to the ground, and trampled on him. There was no one who could deliver the ram out of his hand. The male goat magnified himself exceedingly. When he was strong, the great horn was broken; and instead of it there came up four notable horns toward the four winds of the sky.

Out of one of them came out a little horn, which grew exceedingly great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the glorious land. 10 It grew great, even to the army of the sky; and it cast down some of the army and of the stars to the ground, and trampled on them. 11 Yes, it magnified itself, even to the prince of the army; and it took away from him the continual burnt offering, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. 12 The army was given over to it together with the continual burnt offering through disobedience. It cast down truth to the ground, and it did its pleasure and prospered.

13 Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said to that certain one who spoke, “How long will the vision about the continual burnt offering, and the disobedience that makes desolate, to give both the sanctuary and the army to be trodden under foot be?”

14 He said to me, “To two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings. Then the sanctuary will be cleansed.”

15 When I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, I sought to understand it. Then behold, there stood before me something like the appearance of a man. 16 I heard a man’s voice between the banks of the Ulai, which called, and said, “Gabriel, make this man understand the vision.”

17 So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was frightened, and fell on my face; but he said to me, “Understand, son of man; for the vision belongs to the time of the end.”

18 Now as he was speaking with me, I fell into a deep sleep with my face toward the ground; but he touched me, and set me upright.

19 He said, “Behold, I will make you know what will be in the latter time of the indignation; for it belongs to the appointed time of the end. 20 The ram which you saw, that had the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia. 21 The rough male goat is the king of Greece. The great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. 22 As for that which was broken, in the place where four stood up, four kingdoms will stand up out of the nation, but not with his power.

23 “In the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have come to the full, a king of fierce face, and understanding dark sentences, will stand up. 24 His power will be mighty, but not by his own power. He will destroy awesomely, and will prosper in what he does. He will destroy the mighty ones and the holy people. 25 Through his policy he will cause deceit to prosper in his hand. He will magnify himself in his heart, and he will destroy many in their security. He will also stand up against the prince of princes; but he will be broken without hand.

26 “The vision of the evenings and mornings which has been told is true; but seal up the vision, for it belongs to many days to come.”

27 I, Daniel, fainted, and was sick for some days. Then I rose up, and did the king’s business. I wondered at the vision, but no one understood it.

 

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  • Chapter 5 – 539 BC (Daniel age 73)

    Chapter five finds Belshazzar in the last night of his rule as King of Babylon. It is said that Cyrus the Great’s special forces snuck into Babylon during a festival, and released the city gates for Cyrus’ army to enter and take over. This explains how King Balshazzar could be partying while his city was being conquered. Daniel, the friend of Balshazzar’s grandpa, read the writing on the wall with an elder’s respect that is dismissive to the younger ruler’s praise and gifts. 

Ch. 5 - Daniel's timestamp

Important note on the risk of our current chapter and verse segmentation of the Bible

This chapter also exposes a great risk of the erroneous chapter and verse segmentation of our Bible. Daniel 5:31 reads, "Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old." If these chapters are in chronological order, this would not matter. However, if Daniel changed the order of kings referenced, and verse 31 of chapter 5 is supposed to be the first verse of chapter six... this would make more sense. Each king is referenced at the beginning of each chapter, except here at the end of chapter five. If this last verse (5:31) is a part of the story of the last night of Belshazzar's life... it would infer that Darius was the king that followed Belshazzar (which is incorrect). Proper comprehension of the organization of Daniel's chapters (and this verse) is vital to following the Gospel writer's instructions for the readers to understand." 

Daniel 5 complete text

Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand. Belshazzar, while he tasted the wine, commanded that the golden and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem be brought to him; that the king and his lords, his wives and his concubines, might drink from them. Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of God’s house which was at Jerusalem; and the king and his lords, his wives and his concubines, drank from them. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of bronze, of iron, of wood, and of stone.

In the same hour, the fingers of a man’s hand came out and wrote near the lamp stand on the plaster of the wall of the king’s palace. The king saw the part of the hand that wrote. Then the king’s face was changed in him, and his thoughts troubled him; and the joints of his thighs were loosened, and his knees struck one against another.

The king cried aloud to bring in the enchanters, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. The king spoke and said to the wise men of Babylon, “Whoever reads this writing, and shows me its interpretation, shall be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.”

Then all the king’s wise men came in; but they could not read the writing, and couldn’t make known to the king the interpretation. Then king Belshazzar was greatly troubled, and his face was changed in him, and his lords were perplexed.

10 The queen by reason of the words of the king and his lords came into the banquet house. The queen spoke and said, “O king, live forever; don’t let your thoughts trouble you, nor let your face be changed. 11 There is a man in your kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of your father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, were found in him. The king, Nebuchadnezzar, your father, yes, the king, your father, made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans, and soothsayers; 12 because an excellent spirit, knowledge, understanding, interpreting of dreams, showing of dark sentences, and dissolving of doubts were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called, and he will show the interpretation.”

13 Then Daniel was brought in before the king. The king spoke and said to Daniel, “Are you that Daniel of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Judah? 14 I have heard of you, that the spirit of the gods is in you, and that light, understanding, and excellent wisdom are found in you. 15 Now the wise men, the enchanters, have been brought in before me, that they should read this writing, and make known to me its interpretation; but they could not show the interpretation of the thing. 16 But I have heard of you, that you can give interpretations, and dissolve doubts. Now if you can read the writing, and make known to me its interpretation, you shall be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold around your neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.”

17 Then Daniel answered before the king, “Let your gifts be to yourself, and give your rewards to another. Nevertheless, I will read the writing to the king, and make known to him the interpretation.

18 “To you, king, the Most High God gave Nebuchadnezzar your father the kingdom, and greatness, and glory, and majesty. 19 Because of the greatness that he gave him, all the peoples, nations, and languages trembled and feared before him. He killed whom he wanted to, and he kept alive whom he wanted to. He raised up whom he wanted to, and he put down whom he wanted to. 20 But when his heart was lifted up, and his spirit was hardened so that he dealt proudly, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him. 21 He was driven from the sons of men, and his heart was made like the animals’, and his dwelling was with the wild donkeys. He was fed with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of the sky; until he knew that the Most High God rules in the kingdom of men, and that he sets up over it whomever he will.

22 “You, his son, Belshazzar, have not humbled your heart, though you knew all this, 23 but have lifted up yourself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before you, and you and your lords, your wives, and your concubines, have drunk wine from them. You have praised the gods of silver and gold, of bronze, iron, wood, and stone, which don’t see, or hear, or know; and you have not glorified the God in whose hand your breath is, and whose are all your ways. 24 Then the part of the hand was sent from before him, and this writing was inscribed.

25 “This is the writing that was inscribed: ‘MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.’

26 “This is the interpretation of the thing:

MENE: God has counted your kingdom, and brought it to an end.

27 TEKEL: you are weighed in the balances, and are found wanting.

28 PERES: your kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.”

29 Then Belshazzar commanded, and they clothed Daniel with purple, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.

30 In that night Belshazzar the Chaldean King was slain. 31 Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old.

 

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  • Chapter 10 – 536 BC (Daniel age 76)

    Chapter 10 is three years into the Babylonian rule of Cyrus the Great. Daniel was fasting and praying for three weeks, and saw Gabriel fly up to him (although he didn’t know he was Gabriel until later). He was told that his prayers were heard, and that this arch-angel required another arch-angel (Michael) to help him get through the Persian forces to speak with Daniel. He was also assured that Gabriel showed up, because of Daniel’s words.

Daniel 10 complete text

In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed to Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, even a great warfare. He understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision.

In those days I, Daniel, was mourning three whole weeks. I ate no pleasant bread. No meat or wine came into my mouth. I didn’t anoint myself at all, until three whole weeks were fulfilled.

In the twenty-fourth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Hiddekel, I lifted up my eyes, and looked, and behold, there was a man clothed in linen, whose thighs were adorned with pure gold of Uphaz. His body also was like beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as flaming torches. His arms and his feet were like burnished bronze. The voice of his words was like the voice of a multitude.

I, Daniel, alone saw the vision; for the men who were with me didn’t see the vision; but a great quaking fell on them, and they fled to hide themselves. So I was left alone, and saw this great vision. No strength remained in me; for my face grew deathly pale, and I retained no strength. Yet I heard the voice of his words. When I heard the voice of his words, then I fell into a deep sleep on my face, with my face toward the ground.

10 Behold, a hand touched me, which set me on my knees and on the palms of my hands. 11 He said to me, “Daniel, you greatly beloved man, understand the words that I speak to you, and stand upright; for I have been sent to you, now.” When he had spoken this word to me, I stood trembling.

12 Then he said to me, “Don’t be afraid, Daniel; for from the first day that you set your heart to understand, and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard. I have come for your words’ sake. 13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days; but, behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me because I remained there with the kings of Persia. 14 Now I have come to make you understand what will happen to your people in the latter days; for the vision is yet for many days.”

15 When he had spoken these words to me, I set my face toward the ground, and was mute. 16 Behold, one in the likeness of the sons of men touched my lips. Then I opened my mouth, and spoke and said to him who stood before me, “My lord, by reason of the vision my sorrows have overtaken me, and I retain no strength. 17 For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? For as for me, immediately there remained no strength in me. There was no breath left in me.”

18 Then one like the appearance of a man touched me again, and he strengthened me. 19 He said, “Greatly beloved man, don’t be afraid. Peace be to you. Be strong. Yes, be strong.”

When he spoke to me, I was strengthened, and said, “Let my lord speak; for you have strengthened me.”

20 Then he said, “Do you know why I have come to you? Now I will return to fight with the prince of Persia. When I go out, behold, the prince of Greece will come. 21 But I will tell you that which is inscribed in the writing of truth. There is no one who holds with me against these, but Michael your prince.

 

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  • Between chapters 10 and 9, the rule of Cyrus’ new Achaemenid Empire passed to two of his sons… only to be taken over by Darius I who is also called “the Great” (Daniel age 77-89)

    Queen_Tomyris_and_the_head_of_Cyrus_the_Great

  • Darius was a part of Cyrus’ son’s royal bodyguard. Cyrus’ first son (named Cambyses II) was sent away just before Cyrus’ head was placed in a bag of blood by the queen of the  Massagetae who stated, “See, I warned you that I’d fill your thirst for blood.” Cambyses II was king of the empire for 12 years, and died from an infected cut on his leg in July of 522 BC. His younger brother Bardiya (known by most other languages as Smerdis) became king… maybe. Due to his reign only lasting a few months, the stories of an impersonator pretending to be Bardiya (who was conveniently killed by Darius) are very likely a front for Darius’ seizing power by assassination.  However this transition of power took place, Darius’ first year of ruling the empire lands us at chapters 9, 11 and 12 of Daniel’s book.


 

 

  • Chapter 9 –  522 BC (Daniel age 90)Nebuchadnezzar II history daniel considered when praying for God's mercy

    In Darius’ first year of power, Daniel began a fast with prayer after understanding God’s word to the prophet Jeremiah (which referenced a 70 year period of time). After a wonderful prayer of humility and recognition of God’s people turning their backs on God… while he was praying… Gabriel came back to answer his prayer.  

Ch. 9 -  Daniel's timestamp

Daniel 9 complete text

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the offspring of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans, in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of the years about which Yahweh’s worda]">[a] came to Jeremiah the prophet, for the accomplishing of the desolations of Jerusalem, even seventy years. I set my face to the Lord God, to seek by prayer and petitions, with fasting and sackcloth and ashes.

I prayed to Yahweh my God, and made confession, and said,

“Oh, Lord, the great and dreadful God, who keeps covenant and loving kindness with those who love him and keep his commandments, we have sinned, and have dealt perversely, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even turning aside from your precepts and from your ordinances. We haven’t listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.

“Lord, righteousness belongs to you, but to us confusion of face, as it is today; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, who are near, and who are far off, through all the countries where you have driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against you. Lord, to us belongs confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against you. To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness; for we have rebelled against him. 10 We haven’t obeyed Yahweh our God’s voice, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets. 11 Yes, all Israel have transgressed your law, turning aside, that they should not obey your voice.

“Therefore the curse and the oath written in the law of Moses the servant of God has been poured out on us; for we have sinned against him. 12 He has confirmed his words, which he spoke against us, and against our judges who judged us, by bringing on us a great evil; for under the whole sky, such has not been done as has been done to Jerusalem. 13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil has come on us. Yet we have not entreated the favor of Yahweh our God, that we should turn from our iniquities and have discernment in your truth. 14 Therefore Yahweh has watched over the evil, and brought it on us; for Yahweh our God is righteous in all his works which he does, and we have not obeyed his voice.

15 “Now, Lord our God, who has brought your people out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and have gotten yourself renown, as it is today; we have sinned. We have done wickedly. 16 Lord, according to all your righteousness, please let your anger and your wrath be turned away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and your people have become a reproach to all who are around us.

17 “Now therefore, our God, listen to the prayer of your servant, and to his petitions, and cause your face to shine on your sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake. 18 My God, turn your ear, and hear. Open your eyes, and see our desolations, and the city which is called by your name; for we do not present our petitions before you for our righteousness, but for your great mercies’ sake. 19 Lord, hear. Lord, forgive. Lord, listen and do. Don’t defer, for your own sake, my God, because your city and your people are called by your name.”

20 While I was speaking, praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before Yahweh my God for the holy mountain of my God; 21 yes, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening offering. 22 He instructed me and talked with me, and said, “Daniel, I have now come to give you wisdom and understanding. 23 At the beginning of your petitions the commandment went out, and I have come to tell you; for you are greatly beloved. Therefore consider the matter, and understand the vision.

24 “Seventy weeks are decreed on your people and on your holy city, to finish disobedience, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy.

25 “Know therefore and discern that from the going out of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem to the Anointed One,b]">[b] the prince, will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks. It will be built again, with street and moat, even in troubled times. 26 After the sixty-two weeks the Anointed Onec]">[c] will be cut off, and will have nothing. The people of the prince who come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end will be with a flood, and war will be even to the end. Desolations are determined. 27 He will make a firm covenant with many for one week. In the middle of the week he will cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease. On the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate; and even to the full end, and that determined, wrath will be poured out on the desolate.”

 

Footnotes

  1. 9:2 “Yahweh” is God’s proper Name, sometimes rendered “LORD” (all caps) in other translations.
  2. 9:25 “Anointed One” can also be translated “Messiah” (same as “Christ”).
  3. 9:26 “Anointed One” can also be translated “Messiah” (same as “Christ”).

Chapter 9:4-19 - Prayer of perspective for all of God's people. Updating the titles and group descriptions makes this completely applicable to today's church.

I prayed to Yahweh my God, and made confession, and said,

“Oh, Lord, the great and dreadful God, who keeps covenant and loving kindness with those who love him and keep his commandments, we have sinned, and have dealt perversely, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even turning aside from your precepts and from your ordinances. We haven’t listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.

“Lord, righteousness belongs to you, but to us confusion of face, as it is today; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, who are near, and who are far off, through all the countries where you have driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against you. Lord, to us belongs confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against you. To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness; for we have rebelled against him. 10 We haven’t obeyed Yahweh our God’s voice, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets. 11 Yes, all Israel have transgressed your law, turning aside, that they should not obey your voice.

“Therefore the curse and the oath written in the law of Moses the servant of God has been poured out on us; for we have sinned against him. 12 He has confirmed his words, which he spoke against us, and against our judges who judged us, by bringing on us a great evil; for under the whole sky, such has not been done as has been done to Jerusalem. 13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil has come on us. Yet we have not entreated the favor of Yahweh our God, that we should turn from our iniquities and have discernment in your truth. 14 Therefore Yahweh has watched over the evil, and brought it on us; for Yahweh our God is righteous in all his works which he does, and we have not obeyed his voice.

15 “Now, Lord our God, who has brought your people out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and have gotten yourself renown, as it is today; we have sinned. We have done wickedly. 16 Lord, according to all your righteousness, please let your anger and your wrath be turned away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and your people have become a reproach to all who are around us.

17 “Now therefore, our God, listen to the prayer of your servant, and to his petitions, and cause your face to shine on your sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake. 18 My God, turn your ear, and hear. Open your eyes, and see our desolations, and the city which is called by your name; for we do not present our petitions before you for our righteousness, but for your great mercies’ sake. 19 Lord, hear. Lord, forgive. Lord, listen and do. Don’t defer, for your own sake, my God, because your city and your people are called by your name.”

 

 

  • Chapter 11-12 – 522 BC (Daniel age 90)

    Still in the first year of Darius the Great, Daniel explained to Darius all that would happen to Jerusalem for the 500 years leading up to Jesus (the Chosen One), and finalizing with the destruction of Jerusalem. He left plenty of pronouns, but the accuracy with which his timeline rolls out only leaves those who do not believe in God’s prophesy to claim that Daniel’s book was written centuries after it claims (because there is no way for God to not be real, and this level of prophetic accuracy to be recorded). Those “scholars'” points of dispute as to the authorship of Daniel’s book will be addressed in following blogs. This is quite exciting for any who understand the timeline. 

Daniel 11-12 complete text

“As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him.

“Now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings will stand up in Persia; and the fourth will be far richer than all of them. When he has grown strong through his riches, he will stir up all against the realm of Greece. A mighty king will stand up, who will rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. When he stands up, his kingdom will be broken, and will be divided toward the four winds of the sky, but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom will be plucked up, even for others besides these.

“The king of the south will be strong. One of his princes will become stronger than him, and have dominion. His dominion will be a great dominion. At the end of years they will join themselves together; and the daughter of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make an agreement; but she will not retain the strength of her arm. He will also not stand, nor will his arm; but she will be given up, with those who brought her, and he who became the father of her, and he who strengthened her in those times.

“But out of a shoot from her roots one will stand up in his place, who will come to the army, and will enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and will deal against them, and will prevail. He will also carry their gods, with their molten images, and with their goodly vessels of silver and of gold, captive into Egypt. He will refrain some years from the king of the north. He will come into the realm of the king of the south, but he will return into his own land. 10 His sons will wage war, and will assemble a multitude of great forces, which will come on, and overflow, and pass through. They will return and wage war, even to his fortress.

11 “The king of the south will be moved with anger, and will come out and fight with him, even with the king of the north. He will send out a great multitude, and the multitude will be given into his hand. 12 The multitude will be lifted up, and his heart will be exalted. He will cast down tens of thousands, but he won’t prevail. 13 The king of the north will return, and will send out a multitude greater than the former. He will come on at the end of the times, even of years, with a great army and with much substance.

14 “In those times many will stand up against the king of the south. Also the children of the violent among your people will lift themselves up to establish the vision; but they will fall. 15 So the king of the north will come and cast up a mound, and take a well-fortified city. The forces of the south won’t stand, neither will his chosen people, neither will there be any strength to stand. 16 But he who comes against him will do according to his own will, and no one will stand before him. He will stand in the glorious land, and destruction will be in his hand. 17 He will set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and with him equitable conditions. He will perform them. He will give him the daughter of women, to corrupt her; but she will not stand, and won’t be for him. 18 After this he will turn his face to the islands, and will take many; but a prince will cause the reproach offered by him to cease. Yes, moreover, he will cause his reproach to turn on him. 19 Then he will turn his face toward the fortresses of his own land; but he will stumble and fall, and won’t be found.

20 “Then one who will cause a tax collector to pass through the kingdom to maintain its glory will stand up in his place; but within few days he shall be destroyed, not in anger, and not in battle.

21 “In his place a contemptible person will stand up, to whom they had not given the honor of the kingdom; but he will come in time of security, and will obtain the kingdom by flatteries. 22 The overwhelming forces will be overwhelmed from before him, and will be broken. Yes, also the prince of the covenant. 23 After the treaty made with him he will work deceitfully; for he will come up, and will become strong, with a small people. 24 In time of security he will come even on the fattest places of the province. He will do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers. He will scatter among them prey, plunder, and substance. Yes, he will devise his plans against the strongholds, even for a time.

25 “He will stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south will wage war in battle with an exceedingly great and mighty army; but he won’t stand; for they will devise plans against him. 26 Yes, those who eat of his dainties will destroy him, and his army will be swept away. Many will fall down slain. 27 As for both these kings, their hearts will be to do mischief, and they will speak lies at one table; but it won’t prosper, for the end will still be at the appointed time. 28 Then he will return into his land with great wealth. His heart will be against the holy covenant. He will take action, and return to his own land.

29 “He will return at the appointed time, and come into the south; but it won’t be in the latter time as it was in the former. 30 For ships of Kittim will come against him. Therefore he will be grieved, and will return, and have indignation against the holy covenant, and will take action. He will even return, and have regard to those who forsake the holy covenant.

31 “Forces will stand on his part, and they will profane the sanctuary, even the fortress, and will take away the continual burnt offering. Then they will set up the abomination that makes desolate. 32 He will corrupt those who do wickedly against the covenant by flatteries; but the people who know their God will be strong, and take action.

33 “Those who are wise among the people will instruct many; yet they will fall by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by plunder, many days. 34 Now when they fall, they will be helped with a little help; but many will join themselves to them with flatteries. 35 Some of those who are wise will fall, to refine them, and to purify, and to make them white, even to the time of the end; because it is yet for the time appointed.

36 “The king will do according to his will. He will exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and will speak marvelous things against the God of gods. He will prosper until the indignation is accomplished; for that which is determined will be done. 37 He won’t regard the gods of his fathers, or the desire of women, or regard any god; for he will magnify himself above all. 38 But in his place he will honor the god of fortresses. He will honor a god whom his fathers didn’t know with gold, silver, and with precious stones and pleasant things. 39 He will deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god. He will increase with glory whoever acknowledges him. He will cause them to rule over many, and will divide the land for a price.

40 “At the time of the end the king of the south will contend with him; and the king of the north will come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, with horsemen, and with many ships. He will enter into the countries, and will overflow and pass through. 41 He will enter also into the glorious land, and many countries will be overthrown; but these will be delivered out of his hand: Edom, Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. 42 He will also stretch out his hand on the countries. The land of Egypt won’t escape. 43 But he will have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt. The Libyans and the Ethiopians will be at his steps. 44 But news out of the east and out of the north will trouble him; and he will go out with great fury to destroy and utterly to sweep away many. 45 He will plant the tents of his palace between the sea and the glorious holy mountain; yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him.

12 “At that time Michael will stand up, the great prince who stands for the children of your people; and there will be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time. At that time your people will be delivered, everyone who is found written in the book. Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. Those who are wise will shine as the brightness of the expanse. Those who turn many to righteousness will shine as the stars forever and ever. But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end. Many will run back and forth, and knowledge will be increased.”

Then I, Daniel, looked, and behold, two others stood, one on the river bank on this side, and the other on the river bank on that side. One said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be to the end of these wonders?”

I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and swore by him who lives forever that it will be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have finished breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things will be finished.

I heard, but I didn’t understand. Then I said, “My lord, what will be the outcome of these things?”

He said, “Go your way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed until the time of the end. 10 Many will purify themselves, and make themselves white, and be refined; but the wicked will do wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand; but those who are wise will understand.

11 “From the time that the continual burnt offering is taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate set up, there will be one thousand two hundred ninety days. 12 Blessed is he who waits, and comes to the one thousand three hundred thirty-five days.

13 “But go your way until the end; for you will rest, and will stand in your inheritance at the end of the days.”

 

World English Bible (WEB)

by Public Domain. The name "World English Bible" is trademarked.

These chapters reference, "the abomination of desolation," therefore I've added my current notes lining up our knowledge of historical kings/wars with Daniel 11-12. Keep in mind that this timeline is from Jerusalem's perspective.

530-464BC (Dan 11:1-2) Cyrus to Xerxes

Beginning of Daniel 11 and 12 outlining history up to Joshua, the ChosenOne

589BC (pre-Daniel); Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem
Nebuchadnezzar responded by invading Judah and began a siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. ... After the fall of Jerusalem, the Babylonian general, Nebuzaraddan, was sent to complete its destruction. Jerusalem was plundered, and Solomon's Temple was destroyed. Most of the elite were taken into captivity in Babylon.

Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_(587_BC)


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530-464 BC - Dan 11:1-2 (Sept 530BC); Persian Kings; NOW:Cyrus, FOUR:Cambyses, Bardiya, Darius(9/522BC), Xerxes(10/486BC) stirring against Greece (Darius with Cyrus the Mede before attacking Sythians)
Dan 11. 1; And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him.

Dan 11. 2; “And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings shall arise in Persia, and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them. And when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.

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Three more kings would arise in Persia after Cyrus
...Cambyses [530–522 b.c.],
...Bardiya [522], and
...Darius I Hystaspes [522–486]), and
then a fourth, who would be richer and more powerful than the others and would enter into conflict with Greece.
.. This fourth king was Xerxes I (486–464 b.c.), who invaded Greece, only to be defeated at the Battle of Salamis (480).

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Herodotus’ Account
Ten years after subduing the Babylonians in 539 BCE, Cyrus turned his attention towards the northeastern part of the empire to bring “the Massagetae under his dominion. Now the Massagetae are said to be a great and warlike nation, dwelling eastward, toward the rising of the sun, beyond the river Araxes, and opposite the Issedonians. By many they are regarded as a Scythian race.”

Cyrus, seeing that had two options to consider, took the diplomatic approach first by sending ambassadors to Queen Tomyris, Massagetean ruler “with instructions to court her on his part, pretending that he wished to take her to wife.”

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century.

Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century. (Public Domain)

As the Persian ambassadors crossed into Massagetae territory and approached Tomyris’ residence, she must have sent envoys of her own out to ask the Persian ambassadors as to why they had come. This was probably to check the men for weapons and question the reason for being there. After telling the Massagetae officials of their mission, it was relayed back to Tomyris. Tomyris, considering what they said, realized that it was “her kingdom, and not herself, that he courted.” Instead of hearing it from the Persian envoys, she “forbade the men to approach.” When the Persian envoys returned and informed Cyrus of her answer, he mustered his forces.

Cyrus lead his forces to the Jaxartes River, “and openly displaying his hostile intentions; set to work to construct a bridge on which his army might cross the river, and began building towers upon the boats which were to be used in the passage.” As the Persians were securing their passageways into Massagetae territory, envoys from Tomyris arrived to present Cyrus with a message which stated:

King of the Medes, cease to press this enterprise, for you cannot know if what you are doing will be of real advantage to you. Be content to rule in peace your own kingdom, and bear to see us reign over the countries that are ours to govern. As, however, I know you will not choose to hearken to this counsel, since there is nothing you less desires than peace and quietness, come now, if you are so mightily desirous of meeting the Massagetae in arms, leave your useless toil of bridge-making; let us retire three days’ march from the river bank, and do you come across with your soldiers; or, if you like better to give us battle on your side the stream, retire yourself an equal distance.

Cyrus considered this offer, called his advisors together, and made the argument before them. They all agreed to let “Tomyris cross the stream, and giving battle on Persian ground.” However not all were game to this idea. Croesus the Lydian, who was present at the meeting of the chiefs, disapproved of this advice, stating:

Now concerning the matter in hand, my judgment runs counter to the judgment of your other counselors. For if you agree to give the enemy entrance into your country, consider what risk is run! Lose the battle, and there with your whole kingdom is lost. For, assuredly, the Massagetae, if they win the fight, will not return to their homes, but will push forward against the states of your empire. Or, if you win the battle, why, then you win far less than if you were across the stream, where you might follow up your victory. For against your loss, if they defeat you on your own ground, must be set theirs in like case. Rout their army on the other side of the river, and you may push at once into the heart of their country. Moreover, were it not disgrace intolerable for Cyrus the son of Cambyses to retire before and yield ground to a woman?

Therefore, Cyrus agreed with Croesus that it would be best to face the Massagetae on their territory. Persian envoys delivered the message to Tomyris, stating “she should retire, and that he would cross the stream.” Tomyris thus moved her forces and awaited the Persian army. While he gathered his forces to cross the river, he named Cambyses II as the next king should Cyrus die.

Tomyris had her son, Spargapises lead a third of the Massagetae towards Cyrus’ forces. Cyrus left a small detachment behind with food and drink to lure the Massagetae, which they took, and then defeated the small Persian detachment and begin to eat and drink. Once the Massagetae became inebriated, the Persian forces fell on the camp and killed many, taking a few prisoners alive, including Tomyris’ son Spargapises. Spargapises, learning of what had happened, committed suicide. Tomyris, upon learning what had happened, considered the tactics of Cyrus as cowardly. Tomyris vowed revenge and Cyrus did not take heed to the warning. Cyrus pushed further into Massagetae territory where he and his forces met up with the Massagetae face to face. There are no details of the battle. One can speculate that the Massagetae won over the Persians using steppe tactics, which one would think Cyrus would have been accustomed to and able to defend against. However, whatever counter tactics Cyrus used, was all for nothing. The Massagetae won the battle, killed Cyrus, and recovered his body from the battlefield.

Queen Tomyris had the head of Cyrus cut from his body, which she dipped in blood as a symbolic act of revenge for her son, but also you could say she was giving Cyrus his fill as well. As to how much of this is truth and how much of this is fiction is up to the reader to decide. Herodotus does seem plausible in his account but he is not the only one.

Like all powerful men facing a boundless enterprise, Cyrus also had the chance to reflect and change his mind; but his hybris did not let him recognize the situation, so that the warning of the messenger of Tomyris to content himself with what he had (1.206.1) remained unheard. In this context, Croesus’s advice to carry the battle beyond the Araxes and to resort to an infamous ruse against the Massagetae proved that he was a fatal advisor (Erbse, 1992). Even a further and final warning against crossing the river left Cyrus unmoved. In a dream, he saw Darius wearing wings which cast a shadow over Asia and Europe (1.209.1). In this way the god not only pointed to the future successor and to the fact that he would be the man to carry Persian supremacy to Europe (Bichler, 1985b, pp. 128 f.), but also to the imminent death of Cyrus. However, the Great King misunderstood the dream and, fearing a revolt by Darius, sent his father Hystaspes to Susa to arrest Darius (1.209.2-5). Thus not only was the future usurper Darius kept alive (Bichler 2000b, p. 266), but the ensuing tribute paid to Cyrus by Hystaspes for having changed the Persians from remaining servants to becoming free men (1.210.2) can be interpreted as an anticipated obituary. Cyrus also ignored the last warning of Tomyris (1.212) that his fate would end in a fearful tragedy. Following a lost battle, his severed head was put into a bag full of blood, that being, according to Herodotus, the most credible variant among several stories about the death of the king (1.214).

Bibliography: See HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

(Robert Rollinger)

Originally Published: December 15, 2003

Last Updated: March 22, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. XII, Fasc. 3, pp. 260-262

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/herodotus-iv

336BC (Dan 11:3-4); Alexander the Great rule to his death (The Partitioning of Babylon)

336BC (Dan 11:3-4); Alexander the Great rule to his death (The Partitioning of Babylon)

Dan 11. 3-4; Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and do as he wills. And as soon as he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to the authority with which he ruled, for his kingdom shall be plucked up and go to others besides these.

281BC (Dan 11:5); Ptolomy Ceraunus kills 2/3rds of Alexander's remaining successors, rules everything except Ptolomy I in Egypt

281BC (Dan 11:5); Ptolomy Ceraunus kills 2/3rds of Alexander's remaining successors, rules everything except Ptolomy I in Egypt
Dan 11. 5 - “Then the king of the south shall be strong, but one of his princes shall be stronger than he and shall rule, and his authority shall be a great authority."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_Keraunos?wprov=sfla1

Arrian's "The Campaigns of Alexander" from "history of the ancient world"

See Also; biography of Selucis I

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Ptolomy II hired mercenaries and they plotted against him ...so he stranded them in the Nile

In 270 BCE Ptolemy hired 4,000 Gallic mercenaries (who in 279 BCE under Bolgios killed his half-brother; Ptolemy Keraunos). According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted “to seize Egypt,” and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile River where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”

253BC (Dan 11:6); Antiochus II marries Berenise I - sis of Ptolomy III (ending 2nd SW); both killed by Laodice I (Antiochus II first wife).

253BC (Dan 11:6); Antiochus II marries Berenise I - sis of Ptolomy III (ending 2nd SW); both killed by Laodice I (Antiochus II first wife).
Dan 11. 6; At the end of years they will join themselves together; and the daughter of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make an agreement; but she will not retain the strength of her arm. He will also not stand, nor will his arm; but she will be given up, with those who brought her, and he who became the father of her, and he who strengthened her in those times.

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About this time, Antiochus II made peace with Ptolemy II Philadelphus, ending the Second Syrian War. Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice I and exiled her to Ephesus. To seal the treaty, he married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice and received an enormous dowry.

During her stay in Ephesus, Laodice I continued numerous intrigues to become queen again. By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, in Antioch to live again with Laodice I in Asia Minor. Laodice I took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and their infant son. Antiochus was buried in the Belevi Mausoleum.

Laodice I then proclaimed Seleucus II as King. With his cousin-wife Laodice I, Antiochus had two sons: Seleucus II Callinicus, Antiochus Hierax and three daughters: Apama, Stratonice of Cappadocia and Laodice.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_II_Theos?wprov=sfla1

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In 246 BC, when Ptolemy died, Antiochus II took up again with his first wife, Laodice. Antiochus died shortly thereafter, many suspect from poisoning. Queen Berenice claimed the regency for her infant son Antiochus however, she and her son were both killed by Laodice. Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel11:6.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_Seleucid_queen?wprov=sfla1

246BC (Dan 11:7-8); Ptolomy III takes revenge for sister's murder; takes Antioch and riches from Seleucus II - Laodice I enthroned son (3rd S.W.)

246BC (Dan 11:7-8); Ptolomy III takes revenge for sister's murder; takes Antioch and riches from Seleucus II - Laodice I enthroned son (3rd S.W.)
Dan 11. 7-8; “And from a branch from her roots one shall arise in his place. He shall come against the army and enter the fortress of the king of the north, and he shall deal with them and shall prevail. He shall also carry off to Egypt their gods with their metal images and their precious vessels of silver and gold, and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north."

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"and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north."
...Third Syrian War (246–241 BC)
...Fourth Syrian War (219–217 BC)
=-= 22 years

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Due to a falling out at the Seleucid court, Ptolemy's eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus was murdered along with her infant son. In response Ptolemy III invaded Syria. During this war, the Third Syrian War, he occupied Antioch and even reached Babylon. In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. From this capture he received fifteen hundred talents of silver, roughly a tenth of his annual income. During his involvement in the Third Syrian War, he managed to regain many Egyptian works of art that had been stolen when the Persians conquered Egypt. While he was away fighting, he left his wife, Berenice II, in charge of the country, but swiftly returned when trouble erupted there. The Ptolemaic kingdom reached the height of its power during this reign.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_III_Euergetes?wprov=sfla1

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Third Syrian War (246–241 BC)

See also: Battle of Andros (246 BC) where Ptolomy had half-brother joined antininous and lost . ..escape of command to Ephisus

Also known as the Laodicean War, the Third Syrian War began with one of the many succession crises that plagued the Hellenistic states. Antiochus II left two ambitious mothers, his repudiated wife Laodice and Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice Syra, in a competition to put their respective sons on the throne. Laodice claimed that Antiochus had named her son heir while on his deathbed, but Berenice argued that her newly born son was the legitimate heir. Berenice asked her brother Ptolemy III, the new Ptolemaic king, to come to Antioch and help place her son on the throne. When Ptolemy arrived, Berenice and her child had been assassinated.

Ptolemy declared war on Laodice's newly crowned son, Seleucus II, in 246 BC, and campaigned with great success (his forces possibly being commanded by Xanthippus of Sparta, aka Xanthippus of Carthage, the mercenary general responsible for defeating a Roman army at Tunis/Bagrades in 255). He won major victories over Seleucus in Syria and Anatolia, briefly occupied Antioch and, as a recent cuneiform discovery proves, even reached Babylon. These victories were marred by the loss of the Cyclades to Antigonus Gonatas in the Battle of Andros. Seleucus had his own difficulties. His domineering mother asked him to grant co-regency to his younger brother, Antiochus Hierax, as well as rule over Seleucid territories in Anatolia. Antiochus promptly declared independence, undermining Seleucus' efforts to defend against Ptolemy.

In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. The Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

...Ptolomy III

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_III_Euergetes?wprov=sfla1

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Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel11:6.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_Seleucid_queen?wprov=sfla1
er's murder; takes Antioch and riches from Seleucus II - Laodice I enthroned son (3rd S.W.)

241BC (Dan 11:9); Seleucis II loses kingdom's core; recovers Babylon

241BC (Dan 11:9); Seleucis II loses kingdom's core; recovers Babylon
Dan 11. 9; Then the latter shall come into the realm of the king of the south but shall return to his own land.

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Seleucus II Callinicus [ca. 265 - 225 BCE]

Star-crossed son of Antiochus II & his half-sister Laodice, who inherited the Seleucid throne when his mother poisoned his father (246 BCE). In a series of disastrous defeats by the forces of Ptolemy III he lost control of most of the Seleucid empire including the ancestral capitols of Seleucia & Antioch. He escaped capture by retreating to the interior of Asia Minor. But by delegating control of western Asia Minor to his treacherous brother Antiochus Hierax he lost that territory as well. Almost a decade after his humiliating defeat by the forces of his own relatives at Ancyra (235 BCE) he managed to rout his brother but, in a final humiliation, died in a fall from his own horse.

References: Josephus, Against Apion 1.206-207.
Justin, Epitome 27.1-3.
Appian, History of Rome: Syrian Wars 11.66.

Other resources on line:.
- Justin's Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, book 27 - from
J. S. Watson's translation of abridged Latin edition [3rd. c. CE] of Greco-Roman history from 1st c. BCE [posted by Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum]..
- Seleucus II Callinicus - Jona Lendering outlines biographical information & chronology of events [Livius: Articles in Ancient History]..
- Seleucus II Callinicus - entry in Wikipedia's web.

http://virtualreligion.net/iho/seleucus_2.html

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December 246: Ptolemy proceeds to Babylon; he is still there in February 245 (Ptolemy III Chronicle; BCHP 11)
245: Seleucus' sister "Laodice" marries Mithridates II of Pontus; Phrygia is awarded to him as a marriage gift; Pontus supports the Seleucid empire
Ptolemy, still in Babylon, receives tokens of subjection from eastern noblemen
Revolt of Andragoras in Parthia
245, Summer: Seleucus crosses the Taurus to the south, and forces Ptolemy to retreat; Seleucus reconquers Babylonia
Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia attacks the Egyptian possessions in the Aegean (battle of Andros: Egypt loses the Cyclades)
243: Aratus, leader of the Achaean League, supported by Ptolemy, seizes Corinth from its Macedonian garrison; the Ptolemaic possessions in the Aegean are now left alone
Seleucus proceeds to the south, but is defeated
241: End of the Third Syrian War; the Ptolemies have gained the Syrian coast and have lost some of their Aegean possessions

http://www.livius.org/articles/concept/syrian-war-3/

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In 245 BC Ptolemy III had to return to Egypt to deal with a rebellion in the Nile Delta. News of the death of Berenice finally leaked out, and opposition to Ptolemy grew. Seleucus II is said to have crossed the River Taurus in 244 BC, and soon regained the eastern part of what was now his empire. Antioch and Damascus were soon recovered, but Seleuceia in Pieria remained in Egyptian hands at the end of the war.

Egypt was more successful in Asia Minor, where she could use her fleet to good effect. Opposition to her there was led by Seleucus’s half brother Antiochus Hierax (the Hawk), who had been made regent of the Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor when Seleucus returned to Syria. He does not appear to have been particularly effective against the Egyptians, who ended the war in possession of southern Ionia and probably of Caria and Lycia. The exact scale of Egyptian conquests during the Third Syrian War is obscured by our lack of detailed information about the Second Syrian War, making it hard to be sure which places were conquered and which were simply retained.

The war ended in 241. Seleucus probably initiated the peace in order to deal with his many other problems. Antiochus Heirax had set himself up as an independent ruler, and was now claiming the entire empire (the resulting civil war is known as the War of the Brothers). In the east the Bactrian-Sogdian satrapy was in the process of leaving the empire under the rule of the Macedonian satraps, who felt they were better able to cope with nomad invasions if they were independent of a distant power. The vast Seleucid empire was about to shake itself apart.

How to cite this article: Rickard, J (17 June 2007), Third Syrian War, 246-241 BC (Laodicean War), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_syrian_3rd.html

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_syrian_3rd.html

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Accession and invasion
After the death of his father, Antiochus in July 246 BC, Seleucus was proclaimed king by his mother, Laodice in Ephesos, while his father's second wife Queen Berenice declared her son Antiochus king in Antioch. Berenice acted decisively at first, seizing control of most of Syria and Cilicia. However before her brother Ptolemy III, the king of Egypt was able to land and support to her son's claims she was murdered by partisans of Seleucus II and Queen Laodice.

This dynastic feud began the Third Syrian War. Ptolemy III, invaded the Seleucid Empire and landing at Seleucia Pieria, accepted the surrender of Syria and Cilicia and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond (though he did not reach as far as Babylon . Ptolemy remained in Syria during the winter of 246-245, while Seleucus sent an expedition by sea to retake the area, only to have it wrecked by storms; not the last time he was to be defeated by bad luck.

Defeat in the Third Syrian war and Anatolia
Seleucus managed to maintain himself in the interior of Asia Minor and made arrangements to shore up his power there. One of his sisters married Mithridates II of Pontus, another married Ariarathes III of Cappadocia and he himself married his cousin Laodice II, by whom he had five children among them: Antiochis, Seleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III the Great. Seleucus then appointed his brother Antiochus Hierax as viceroy in Asia Minor and marched against the Ptolemies.

Ptolemy himself returned to Egypt in 245, reputedly taking with him 40,000 talents of gold and the statues of Egyptian gods which had been looted centuries before by the Persians. Seleucus crossed into Babylonia and Mesopotamia first, receiving the loyalty of the empire's Eastern regions and then marched into Syria where he recovered Antioch by 244. This was followed by the recapture of the other major cities of the area and by 242 the interior of Northern Syria had been regained and Seleucus was even able to launch raids into Ptolemaic controlled Syria around Damascus.

Elsewhere the Seleucid's were less successful, in the Aegean the Ptolemies were able to seize control of Ephesos, as well as Ainos and Maroneia in Thrace, and several cities on the Asian side of the Hellespont.

In 241 peace was finally signed, Ptolemy recognised Seleucus as king and the Eleutheros river was once again accepted as boundary between the two empires in Syria. Ptolemy did however retain his conquests in Thrace, Ephesos, and most importantly of all the vital port of Seleucia Pieria. This city contained the tomb of the dynasties founder Seleucus I and controlled much of the trade from Antioch, desire to recover it would prove to be one of the main causes of the outbreak of the Fourth Syrian war in 219 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_II_Callinicus?wprov=sfla1

219BC (Dan 11:10); Antiochus III invades [4th Syrian War]

219BC (Dan 11:10); Antiochus III invades [4th Syrian War]
Dan 11.10; “His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall keep coming and overflow and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress."

__-_-__

Egypt had been significantly weakened by court intrigue and public unrest. The rule of the newly inaugurated Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC) began with the murder of queen-mother Berenice II. The young king quickly fell under the absolute influence of imperial courtiers. His ministers used their absolute power in their own self-interest, to the people's great chagrin.

Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC. He recaptured Seleucia Pieria as well as cities in Phoenicia, amongst them Tyre.
...Rather than promptly invading Egypt, Antiochus waited in Phoenicia for over a year, consolidating his new territories and listening to diplomatic proposals from the Ptolemaic kingdom.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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_____________
previous description
*******************
Antiochus III failure to launch in 1st conquest - didn't lead invasion (only 18 yrs old)
*******************
NOTES:
Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation. After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he finally began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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The young king, under the influence of the minister Hermeias, headed an attack on Ptolemaic Syria instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack against the Ptolemaic empire proved a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster. Only in Asia Minor, where the king's cousin, Achaeus, represented the Seleucid cause, did its prestige recover, driving the Pergamene power back to its earlier limits.

In 221 BC Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed which Polybios attributes in part to his following the advice of Zeuxis rather than Hermeias. The submission of Lesser Media, which had asserted its independence under Artabazanes, followed. Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria (220 BC). Meanwhile, Achaeus himself had revolted and assumed the title of king in Asia Minor. Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow an attack on Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Ptolemaic Syria.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great?wprov=sfla1

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The young king was in the hands of the bad minister Hermeias, and was induced to make an attack on Palestine instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack on Palestine was a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon and Alexander met with disaster.

https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclopædia_Britannica/Seleucid_Dynasty

217BC - June-22 (Dan 11:11); Ptolomy IV takes Jerusalem back from Antiochus III (end 4th Syrain War at the battle of Raphia), surrender at Gaza

June-22-217BC (Dan 11:11); Ptolomy IV takes Jerusalem back from Antiochus III (end 4th Syrain War at the battle of Raphia), surrender at Gaza
Dan 11.11; Then the king of the south, moved with rage, shall come out and fight against the king of the north. And he shall raise a great multitude, but it shall be given into his hand.

__-_-_-___

Meanwhile, Ptolemy's minister Sosibius began recruiting and training an army. He recruited not only from the local Greek population, as Hellenistic armies generally were, but also from the native Egyptians, enrolling at least thirty thousand natives as phalangites. This innovation paid off, but it would eventually have dire consequences for Ptolemaic stability. In the summer of 217 BC, Ptolemy engaged and defeated the long-delayed Antiochus in the Battle of Raphia, the largest battle since the Battle of Ipsus over eighty years earlier.

Ptolemy's victory preserved his control over Coele-Syria, and the weak king declined to advance further into Antiochus' empire, even to retake Seleucia Pieria. The Ptolemaic kingdom would continue to weaken over the following years, suffering from economic problems and rebellion. Nationalist sentiment had developed among the native Egyptians who had fought at Raphia. Confident and well-trained, they broke from Ptolemy in what is known as the Egyptian Revolt, establishing their own kingdom in Upper Egypt which the Ptolemies finally reconquered around 185 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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BATTLE OF RAPHIA
Antiochus routed the Ptolemaic horse posed against him and pursued the fleeing enemy en masse, believing to have won the day, but the Ptolemaic phalanxes eventually drove the Seleucid phalanxes back and soon Antiochus realized that his judgment was wrong. Antiochus tried to ride back, but by the time he rode back, his troops were routed and could no longer be regrouped. The battle had ended.

After the battle, Antiochus wanted to regroup and make camp outside the city of Raphia but most of his men had already found refuge inside and he was thus forced to enter it himself.

Then he marched to Gaza and asked Ptolemy for the customary truce to bury the dead, which he was granted.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raphia?wprov=sfla1

217BC2 (Dan 11:12); Ptolomy IV exalted, kills 10,000s & doesn't prevail??? Look at Gaza ???

...217BC (Dan 11:12); Ptolomy IV exalted, kills 10,000s & doesn't prevail??? Look at Gaza ???
Dan 11.12; And when the multitude is taken away, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail.

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204BC (Dan 11:13); Antiochus III pact with Philip V (of Macedon) to share Jerusalem/take from 12 year old Ptolomy V [or Ptolomy IV?]

204BC (Dan 11:13); Antiochus III pact with Philip V (of Macedon) to share Jerusalem/take from 12 year old Ptolomy V [or Ptolomy IV?]
Dan 11.13; For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, greater than the first. And after some years he shall come on with a great army and abundant supplies.

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Antiochus III traveled to Parthia, Batria and even India and made profitable pact with Indian King before making patch with Philip V
----FIND_REFERENCE___

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Antiochus III staged a second invasion of Coele-Syria. He made an agreement with Philip V of Macedon to conquer and share the Ptolemies' non-Egyptian territories, although this alliance did not last long.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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In 205/204 BC the infant Ptolemy V Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus is said (notably by Polybius) to have concluded a secret pact with Philip V of Macedon for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions. Under the terms of this pact, Macedon was to receive the Ptolemaic possessions around the Aegean Sea and Cyrene, while Antiochus would annex Cyprus and Egypt.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_III_the_Great?wprov=sfla1

204BC (Dan 11:14); all rise against Ptolomy V ...try unsuccessfully to

204BC (Dan 11:14); all rise against Ptolomy V ...try unsuccessfully to "fulfill vision"
Dan 11.14; “In those times many shall rise against the king of the south, and the violent among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfill the vision, but they shall fail.

??? who arose, and what vision???

_-_-_-_

Plutarch describes Ptolemy IV as, " was a loose, voluptuous, and effeminate prince,", and again, "besotted with his women and wine". Again that he focused on, "senseless and continuous drinking"

Polybius explains Ptolomy IV actions, "he conducted his reign as if it were a Perpetual Festival, neglected the business of state, made himself difficult to approach, and treated with contempt or indifference those who handled his country's interests abroad."

Upon his father's death, Ptolemy IV poisoned his mother, scalded to his brother to death (his brother was popular with the army). While this type of struggle for power was not foreign to the macedonians, or seleucids back to the Persians and acadians... The royal family in Egypt was an expression of the Sun God. The Father was reborn as the sun, which is why it wasn't gross to marry your family. Each king or pharaoh was the physical holder of the office of god king during their life, and the god-part of the father moved into the sun when the father died ...to kill your mom was to kill your wife (which would not be the first marriage to end in blood), but to kill your brother was to kill your son.... personal note

His government was essentially being run by his mistress Agathoclea , her brother agathocles who Plutarch called "that pimp" and Socibius, one of his advisers. Sociniuss was the man who trained the Egyptians to fight in the ??? Syrian War ... which led to the Egyptian revolt.
--> Ptolomy IV died in 204
--> continuing the standard of government which was almost universally despised, Cecilia's, that pimp agathocles, apparently forged documents to make themselves guardians (or Regents) of the child... a cue that Antiochus IV would exploit to gain power (even though he was actual blood family... Which makes it more justifiable... And all the more cruel).
--> Sosibius died months later, and Agathocles, Agathoclea, and their mother held the power in Egypt.
--> Polybius describes how at this point the mob, led by the army, dragged the family out of the palace into the street. They stripped them naked, and tore them peace from peace in a Savage polybius calls describes, some began to tear them with their teeth, others to stab them, others to gouge out their eyes. As soon as any of them fell, the body was torn limb from limb until they had dismembered them all, for the savagery of the Egyptians is truly appalling when they're of passions have been roused"
...pg 628 in the history of the ancient world

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Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died. Philopator's two leading favorites, Agathocles and Sosibius, fearing that Arsinoe would secure the regency, had her murdered before she heard of her husband's death, thereby securing the regency for themselves. However, in 202 BC, Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, put himself at the head of a revolt. Once Epiphanes was in the hands of Tlepolemus he was persuaded to give a sign that his mother's killers should be killed. The child king gave his consent, it is thought more from fear than anything else, and Agathocles along with several of his supporters were killed by the Alexandrian mob

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

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198BC (Dan 11:15-16a); Antiochus III takes Gaza; Ptolomy's Egyptian war depot [5th SW]

198BC (Dan 11:15-16a); Antiochus III takes Gaza; Ptolomy's Egyptian war depot [5th SW]
Dan 11.15-16a; Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks and take a well-fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, or even his best troops, for there shall be no strength to stand. But he who comes against him shall do as he wills, and none shall stand before him.

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Ptolemy IV "Philopator" had made Gaza his chief depot of war material; see 5, 68.
--- Antiochus IV destroyed it in B.C. 198 for its loyalty to the King of Egypt.

...this city didn't surrender to Alexander the great

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseustext1999.01.0234book16chapterpos826

...book 17 of Polybius is lost

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Shutting himself up within the walls of Sidon, after an ineffectual attempt by Ptolemy to relieve him he was ultimately compelled by famine to surrender (Polybius XIII.1-2, XVI.18-19, 39; Josephus, Antiguities XII.3.3; St. Jerome, and Daniel, XI.15-16).

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Fifth Syrian War (202–195 BC)
See also: Battle of Panium

The death of Ptolemy IV in 204 BC was followed by a bloody conflict over the regency as his heir, Ptolemy V, was just a child.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

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The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Ancient Greek: Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Syrian Wars. The Seleucids were led by Antiochus III the Great, while the Ptolemaic army was led by Scopas of Aetolia. The Seleucids won the battle.

The battle was fought near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi), and marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Judea. Some biblical commentators see this battle as being the one referred to in Daniel 11:15, where it says, "Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Panium?wprov=sfla1

198BC (Dan 11:16b-17); Antiochus III takes Jerusalem; gives Cleopatra I to marry Ptolomy V

198BC (Dan 11:16b-17); Antiochus III takes Jerusalem; gives Cleopatra I to marry Ptolomy V
Dan 11.16b-17; And he shall stand in the glorious land, with destruction in his hand. He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of an agreement and perform them. He shall give him the daughter of women to destroy the kingdom, but it shall not stand or be to his advantage.

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Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon made a pact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions overseas. Philip seized several islands and populated places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the Battle of Panium (198 BC) definitively transferred Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.

Antiochus then concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra I to Epiphanes in marriage (193–192 BC). Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome, Egypt ranged itself with the latter power.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_V_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

188BC (Dan 11:18); Roman commander Glabrio (Scipio Asiaticus?) makes Antiochus III sign the Treaty of Apamea at Battle of Magnesia, after three retreats by Antiochus III

188BC (Dan 11:18); Roman commander Glabrio (Scipio Asiaticus?) makes Antiochus III sign the Treaty of Apamea at Battle of Magnesia, after three retreats by Antiochus III
Dan 11.18; Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands and shall capture many of them, but a commander shall put an end to his insolence. Indeed, he shall turn his insolence back upon him.

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Philip also supported the Romans against Antiochus III (192-189 BC).

In return for his help when Roman forces under Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus moved through Macedon and Thrace in 190 BC, the Romans forgave the remaining indemnity that he had to pay and his son Demetrius was freed. Philip then focused on consolidating power within Macedon. He reorganised the country's internal affairs and finances, mines were reopened, and a new currency was issued.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_V_of_Macedon?wprov=sfla1

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Antiochus IV's insolence was that he'd bribe (spread

____--__--_
Prelude
Antiochus III the Great, the Seleucid Emperor, first became involved with Greece when he signed an alliance with King Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC.[1] The treaty stated that Antiochus and Philip would help each other conquer the lands of the young Ptolemaic pharaoh, Ptolemy V.[1]
In 200 BC, Rome first became involved in the affairs of Greece, when two of its allies, Pergamum and Rhodes, who had been fighting Philip in the Cretan War, appealed to the Romans for help.[2] In response to this appeal the Romans sent an army to Greece and attacked Macedon. The Second Macedonian War lasted until 196 BC, and it effectively ended when the Romans and their allies, including the Aetolian League, defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. The treaty's terms forced Philip to pay a war indemnity and become a Roman ally while Rome occupied some areas of Greece.
Meanwhile, Antiochus was fighting the armies of Ptolemy in Coele-Syria in the Fifth Syrian War (201 BC - 195 BC). Antiochus' army crushed the Egyptian army at the Battle of Panium in 201 BC, and by 198 BC, Coele-Syria was in Antiochus' hands.
Antiochus then concentrated on raiding Ptolemaic possessions in Cilicia, Lycia and Caria.[3] While attacking Ptolemy's possessions in Asia Minor, Antiochus sent a fleet to occupy Ptolemy's coastal cities in the area as well as to support Philip.[3] Rhodes, a Roman ally and the strongest naval power in the area became alarmed and sent envoys to Antiochus saying that they would have to oppose him if his fleet passed Chelidonae in Cicilia because they didn't want Philip to receive aid.[4] Antiochus ignored the threat and kept proceeding with his naval movements, but the Rhodians did not act because they had heard that Philip had been defeated at Cynoscephalae and was no longer a threat.[4]
Peace was established in 195 BC with the marriage of Antiochus' daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy. Antiochus' hands were now clear of problems in Asia and he now turned his eyes towards Europe.

Outbreak of the war

Silver coin of Antiochus III
Meanwhile, Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had fought against Rome in the Second Punic War, fled from Carthage to Tyre, and from there he sought refuge at Antiochus' court in Ephesus where the King was deciding what actions to take against Rome.[5]
Because of the continued Roman influence in Greece, the Aetolians, in spite of the philo-Hellenic consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus having just declared Greece "free", now garrisoned Chalcis and Demetrias, which the Romans themselves had argued were key to Macedonia's domination of Greece, and became anti-Roman. They also resented how the Romans had prevented them from reincorporating Echinus and Pharsalus, which had formerly been part of the League, at the end of the Second Macedonian War.[6] In 195 BC, when the Romans decided to invade Sparta, the Aetolians, wanting the Romans to leave Greece, offered to deal with Sparta. However, the Achaean League, not wanting Aetolia's power to grow, refused.[7] The modern historian Erich Gruen has suggested that the Romans may have used the war as an excuse to station a few legions in Greece in order to prevent the Spartans and the Aetolian League from joining the Seleucid King Antiochus III if he invaded Greece.[8]
Having defeated Sparta in 195 BC, the Roman legions under Flamininus left Greece the next year. In 192 BC, a weakened Sparta appealed to the Aetolians for military assistance.[9] The Aetolians responded to this request by sending a unit of 1,000 cavalry.[10] However, after they got there, this force assassinated Nabis, Sparta's last independent ruler, and tried to gain control of Sparta, only to be defeated.[10]

THE MILITARY CONFLICT
Building on anti-Roman sentiment in Greece, particularly among the city-states of the Aetolian League, Antiochus III led an army across the Hellespont planning to "liberate" it. Antiochus and the Aetolian league failed to gain the support of Philip V of Macedon and the Achaean League. The Romans responded to the invasion by sending an army to Greece which defeated Antiochus' army at Thermopylae.
This defeat proved crushing, and Antiochus was forced to retreat from Greece. The Romans under the command of Scipio Asiaticus followed him across the Aegean. The combined Roman-Rhodian fleet defeated the Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal at the Battle of the Eurymedon and at the Battle of Myonessus. After some fighting in Asia Minor, the Seleucids fought against the armies of Rome and Pergamum at Magnesia. The Roman-Pergamese army won the battle, and Antiochus was forced to retreat.
During the journey back to Italy after the victory at Magnesia and the end of the Syrian war, the consul Manlius Vulso ran into trouble near Cypsela in Thrace. His legions and auxiliaries were marching down a long, narrow wooded track when he was attacked by a force of about 10,000-20,000 Thracian tribesmen. They waited until Vulso's van had passed and before the rearguard had come into view to attack and loot the baggage wagons in the middle of the column. When the Roman troops from the van and rear rushed to the center, a disorderly fight ensued and persisted until the Thracians withdrew at dusk. Both sides suffered heavy losses.

THE PEACE OF APAMEA
The battle was disastrous for the Seleucids, and Antiochus was forced to come to terms. Amongst the terms of the Treaty of Apamea, Antiochus had to pay 15,000 talents (450 tonnes/990,000 pounds) of silver as a war indemnity, and he was forced to abandon his territory west of the Taurus Mountains. Rhodes gained control over Caria and Lycia, while the Pergamese gained northern Lycia and all of Antiochus' other territories in Asia Minor.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman–Seleucid_War

187BC -July-3 (Dan 11:19); Antiochus III dies robbing from Baal temple.

July-3-187BC (Dan 11:19); Antiochus III dies robbing from Baal temple.
Dan 11.19; Then he shall turn his face back toward the fortresses of his own land, but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found.

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PER {25 month 3 - B = 3 July} The death of Antiochus III, and accession of Seleucus IV.

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* Read Justin's account
@ #BabylChron_BM.35603'R6-8; Diod_28.3'1, 29.15'1; Strab_16'744;(1.18) Joseph:AJ_12'223; Appian:Syr_66; Just_32.2'1-2;* Porph:Fr_47; +[Euseb]:Chron_253, 263; [Vict]:VirIll_54'4;L +Hieron:Chron_1830; Sulpit_2'19; ExcBarb_46A; +Zonar_9'21;(p327) { CAH_8'351; Green_422.}

http://www.attalus.org/bc2/year187.html#6

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178BC (Dan 11:20); Seleucus IV collects taxes for Rome (treaty of Apamea), killed by Heliodorus after his Jerusalem collection trip

178BC (Dan 11:20); Seleucus IV collects taxes for Rome (treaty of Apamea), killed by Heliodorus after his Jerusalem collection trip
Dan 11.20; Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an exactor of tribute for the glory of the kingdom. But within a few days he shall be broken, neither in anger nor in battle.

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Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).

He was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an ambitious policy. In an effort to collect money to pay the Romans, he sent his minister Heliodorus to Jerusalem to seize the Jewish temple treasury.

The Bible tells of a prophecy given by a messenger angel in Daniel 11:20 (NLT). The text states that Seleucus "will be remembered as the king who sent a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor." The deuterocanonical lends more to this in 2 Maccabees 3:2-3

On his return from Jerusalem, Heliodorus assassinated Seleucus, and seized the throne for himself.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_IV_Philopator?wprov=sfla1

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In the Apocrypha

Around 178 BC Seleucus sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to collect money to pay the Romans. There may be a reference to this in Daniel 11:20, "He will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor". 2 Maccabees 3:21-28 reports that Heliodorus entered the Temple in Jerusalem in order to take its treasure, but was turned back by three spiritual beings who manifested themselves as human beings .

2 Maccabees 3:34-36 records that Heliodorus received "orders from God" to "proclaim to all men the majesty of God's power" .

It is believed that on his return from Jerusalem, he killed the king and seized the throne for himself; but it was not long before Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the brother of the late king, with the help of the Pergamon monarch, Eumenes II, recovered it.

The Heliodorus stele, a Greek-language inscription of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, is dated to 178 BCE. In this stele, Seleucus informs Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. While this part of the inscription comes from the trade of antiquities, an additional fragment from the same inscription was found in 2005 in an underground basement of a Hellenistic house in Maresha.

Heliodorus in the Arts

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliodorus_minister?wprov=sfla1

175BC - Sept-3 (Dan 11:21); Antiochus IV returned after 1 yr as Rome's prisoner, gets guardianship of Selucis IV's son (the one not taken to Rome), and kills him a few years later ...to become king

Sept-3-175BC (Dan 11:21); Antiochus IV returned after 1 yr as Rome's prisoner, gets guardianship of Selucis IV's son (the one not taken to Rome), and kills him a few years later ...to become king
Dan 11.21; In his place shall arise a contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given. He shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

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Antiochus was a member of the HellenisticGreek Seleucid dynasty and was the son and potential successor of King Antiochus III, and as such he became a political hostage of the Roman Republic following the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. His older brother Seleucus IV followed his father onto the throne in 187 BC, and Antiochus was exchanged for his nephew Demetrius I Soter (the son and heir of Seleucus). King Seleucus was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus in 175 BC, but Antiochus in turn ousted him. Seleucus' legitimate heir Demetrius I Soter was still a hostage in Rome, so Antiochus seized the throne for himself with the help of King Eumenes II of Pergamum, proclaiming himself co-regent with another son of Seleucus, an infant named Antiochus (whom he then murdered a few years later).

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

_--_-_

Succession

Antiochus took power after the death of Seleucus Philopator. He had been hostage in Rome following the peace of Apamea in 188 B.C.E. but had recently been exchanged for the son and rightful heir of Seleucus IV, the later Demetrius I of Syria. Taking advantage of this situation, Antiochus was able to proclaim himself as co-regent with another of Seleucus' sons, the infant Antiochus, whose murder he orchestrated a few years later.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes

175BC (Dan 11:22); Jewish brothers buy high priesthood from Antiochus IV

175BC (Dan 11:22); Jewish brothers buy high priesthood from Antiochus IV
Dan 11.22; Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, even the prince of the covenant.

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When Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 215–164 BCE), became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE,
... Onias III held the office of High Priest in Jerusalem.

To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint or dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed.
...Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead of Onias. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and "received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabees?wprov=sfla1

175-170BC (Dan 11:23); Antiochus IV alliance with Rome & adopts Rome's

175-170BC (Dan 11:23); Antiochus IV alliance with Rome & adopts Rome's "appearance-of-shared-power" leadership model
Dan 11.23. And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people.

_-_-_-_

Rome asked Antiochus IV for allegiance with Perseus (Macedon). He agreed to have none.
- Livy, "History of Rome" vol6, 42.36. (paraphrase)

Antiochus also tried to interact with common people by appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices, and his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.
REF:
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Antiochus IV Epiphanes
- Polybius 26.10

.

175-170BC (Dan 11:24); takes bids for High Priest to fix Jewish revolts

175-170BC (Dan 11:24); takes bids for High Priest to fix Jewish revolts
Dan 11.24; Without warning he shall come into the richest parts of the province, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his fathers' fathers have done, scattering among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time.

_-_-_-_-_-_-_--_-_-_-_-

In turn, Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason.
... Menelaus had Onias assassinated.

Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple; the resulting riots led to the death of Lysimachus.
...Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble.

Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children" (168 BCE).
...From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy in the Seleucid satrapies of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maccabees?wprov=sfla1

170-169BC (Dan 11:25-26); Sixth Syrian War; Egypt king betrayed by friends, and army swept away

170-169BC (Dan 11:25-26); Sixth Syrian War; Egypt king betrayed by friends, and army swept away
Dan 11.25-26; And he shall stir up his power and his heart against the king of the south with a great army. And the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army, but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him. Even those who eat his food shall break him. His army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain.

_-_-_-_-_-_-__-__--_

In 170, Eulaeus and Lenaeus, the two regents of the young king of Egypt Ptolemy VI Philometor, declared war on the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes. In the same year, Ptolemy's younger siblings Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra II were declared co-rulers in order to bolster the unity of Egypt. Military operations did not begin until 169 when Antiochus quickly gained the upper hand, seizing the important strategic town of Pelusium. The Egyptians realised their folly in starting the war, Eulaeus and Lenaeus were overthrown and replaced by two new regents, Comanus and Cineas, and envoys were sent to negotiate a peace treaty with Antiochus. Antiochus took Ptolemy VI (who was his nephew) under his guardianship, giving him effective control of Egypt.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

_-_--_-_-_-_--_-_-

170: Outbreak of the Sixth Syrian War.

The Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes prepares himself and strikes first:

169: Antiochus invades Egypt, captures Memphis, and demands that Ptolemy VI receives other advisers (Comanus and Cineas). He presents himself as protector of the king. Greek embassies to negotiate an armistice are sent back. In Alexandria, people demand that Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VIII become king.

Antiochus retreats (keeping Pelusion) and leaves the war to Ptolemy VI; in the winter, the Ptolemaic rulers are reconciled, which puts an end to Antiochus' ambition to keep the two brothers fighting against each other

http://www.livius.org/articles/concept/syrian-war-6/?

_-_-_-__-_-__-__-__-_

.

169-168BC (Dan 11:27); Antiochus IV leaves Ptolomy VI king in Egypt, but not yet the end.

169-168BC (Dan 11:27); Antiochus IV leaves Ptolomy VI king in Egypt, but not yet the end.
Dan 11.27; And as for the two kings, their hearts shall be bent on doing evil. They shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail, for the end is yet to be at the time appointed.

_-_-_-_

However, this was unacceptable to the people of Alexandria who responded by proclaiming Ptolemy Physcon as sole king. Antiochus besieged Alexandria but he was unable to cut communications to the city so, at the end of 169, he withdrew his army.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars?wprov=sfla1

____________

Wars against Egypt

Main article: Sixth Syrian War

The guardians of King Ptolemy VI Philometordemanded the return of Coele-Syria in 170 BC, but Antiochus launched a preemptive strike against Egypt, conquering all but Alexandriaand capturing King Ptolemy. To avoid alarming Rome, Antiochus allowed Ptolemy VI to continue ruling as a puppet king. Upon Antiochus' withdrawal, the city of Alexandria chose a new king, one of Ptolemy's brothers, also named Ptolemy (VIII Euergetes). The Ptolemy brothers ruled Egypt jointly.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

169-168BC (Dan 11:28); Antiochus IV returns from Egypt

169-168BC (Dan 11:28); Antiochus IV returns from Egypt
Dan 11.28; And he shall return to his land with great wealth, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. And he shall work his will and return to his own land.

_-_-_-_-_-__-_-___-___-

170-168: Sixth Syrian War: Ptolemy VI Philometor -who is too young to rule- attacks the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus IV builds a navy (against the terms of the Peace of Apamea) and conquers Cyprus and large parts of Egypt and presents himself as protector of Ptolemy VI against his relatives Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon and Cleopatra II

Livy http://www.livius.org/articles/person/antiochus-iv-epiphanes/

168BC (Dan 11:29-30a): Elderly Roman draws circle around Antiochus IV with demand to answer if he was going to submit to Rome's demands.

168BC (Dan 11:29-30a): Elderly Roman draws circle around Antiochus IV with demand to answer if he was going to submit to Rome's demands.
Dan 11:29-30a - At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south, but it shall not be this time as it was before. For ships of Kittim (aka. Cyprus) shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw

_-_-_-_-_

In 168 BC, Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet to capture Cyprus. Before he reached Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single elderly Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas who delivered a message from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus or consider himself in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council, whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and said: "Before you cross this circle, I want you to give me a reply for the Roman Senate." This implied Rome would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes
or: Polybius 29.27.4, Livy 45.12.4ff.

168-167 (Dan 11:30b): Active rewarding of those betraying God

168-167 (Dan 11:30b): Active rewarding of those betraying God
Dan 11.30b: , and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and pay attention to those who forsake the holy covenant.

-___-______-___

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadelcalled the Acra.
The date of Antiochus's persecution of the Jews in Jerusalem is variously given as 168 or 167 BC. In their commentary on the Book of Daniel, Newsom and Breed argue for 167, although they state that good arguments can be made for either chronology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes?wprov=sfla1

168-167BC (Dan 11:31); Set up the Abomination of Desolation

168-167BC (Dan 11:31); Set up the Abomination of Desolation
Dan 11.31; Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the regular burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate.

_-_--_/-_-_-_--___-_

Antiochus IV Epiphanes succeeded his older brother to the Seleucid throne and immediately adopted his father's previous policy of universal Hellenisation. The Jews rebelled again and Antiochus, in a rage, retaliated in force. Considering the previous episodes of discontent, the Jews became incensed when the religious observances of Sabbath and circumcision were officially outlawed. When Antiochus erected a statue of Zeus in their temple and Hellenic priests began sacrificing pigs (the usual sacrifice offered to the Greek gods in the Hellenic religion), their anger began to spiral. When a Greek official ordered a Jewish priest to perform a Hellenic sacrifice, the priest (Mattathias) killed him. In 167 BCE, the Jews rose up en masse behind Mattathias and his five sons to fight and win their freedom from Seleucid authority. Mattathias' son Judas Maccabaeus, now called "The Hammer", re-dedicated the temple in 165 BCE and the Jews celebrate this event to this day as a major part of the festival of Hanukkah.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_in_Jerusalem?wprov=sfla1

167BC (Dan 11:32-35); Maccabean revolt and Hanukkah

167BC (Dan 11:32-35); Maccabean revolt and Hanukkah
Dan 11.32-35; He shall seduce with flattery those who violate the covenant, but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action. And the wise among the people shall make many understand, though for some days they shall stumble by sword and flame, by captivity and plunder. When they stumble, they shall receive a little help. And many shall join themselves to them with flattery, and some of the wise shall stumble, so that they may be refined, purified, and made white, until the time of the end, for it still awaits the appointed time.

_-_-_-_

The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean revolt.[11]:238

According to the authors of the Books of Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.[12]

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14
Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed (168 BC) because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

Mina of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Traditionally, as expressed in the First and Second Books of the Maccabees, the Maccabean Revolt was painted as a national resistance to a foreign political and cultural oppression. In modern times, however, scholars have argued that the king was instead intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews in the country and the Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem.[13][14][15] According to Joseph P. Schultz:

Modern scholarship on the other hand considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp.[16]

It seems that the traditionalists, with Hebrew/Aramaic names such as Onias, contested with the Hellenizers, with Greek names such as Jason and Menelaus, over who would be the High Priest.[17] Other authors have pointed to the possibility of socioeconomic motives, as well as religious ones, as having been primary drivers of the civil war.[18]

What began in many respects as a civil war escalated when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews in their conflict with the traditionalists.[19] As the conflict escalated, Antiochus took the side of the Hellenizers by prohibiting the religious practices around which the traditionalists had rallied. This could explain why the king banned the traditional religion of a whole people, in a total departure from typical Seleucid practice in other settings.[20]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochus_IV_Epiphanes

167BC (Dan 11:36-39); Antiochus IV; Syrian King who demanded to be worshiped as God in Temple with pigs blood

167BC (Dan 11:36-39); Antiochus IV; Syrian King who demanded to be worshiped as God in Temple with pigs blood
Dan 11.36-39; “And the king shall do as he wills. He shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is decreed shall be done. 37 He shall pay no attention to the gods of his fathers, or to the one beloved by women. He shall not pay attention to any other god, for he shall magnify himself above all. 38 He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these. A god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god. Those who acknowledge him he shall load with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.[f]

_-_-_-___--_--_-_---_-__

In 169, however, while Antiochus was campaigning in Egypt, Jason conquered Jerusalem—with the exception of the citadel—and murdered many adherents of his rival Menelaus. When Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 he took Jerusalem by storm and enforced its Hellenization. The city forfeited its privileges and was permanently garrisoned by Syrian soldiers.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antiochus-IV-Epiphanes

_-__-__-_-_-_--_-_-_-__-

The Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea: they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was drastically reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule, the Maccabean Revolt.:238

Books of Maccabees

According to the authors of the Books of the Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. In Judea, the deposed High Priest Jasongathered a force of 1000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 168 BC, enraged by his defeat; he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.

When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.

— 2 Maccabees 5:11–14

Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and to strengthen his hold over the region. He outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditionskept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra.

167-164BC (Dan 11:40-43); Antiochus IV; Conquest by Force

167-164BC (Dan 11:40-43); Antiochus IV; Conquest by Force
Dan 11.40-43; “At the time of the end, the king of the south shall attack him, but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships. And he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape. He shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt, and the Libyans and the Cushites shall follow in his train.

_-_-__-__-__-___-____
DELIVERED:
- Edom
- Moab
- Ammonites (main part)

CONQUORED:
- Egypt
- Libia
- Cush
_-_-__-__-__-___-____

King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.[citation needed]
Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC.
According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.
According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he was horrifically injured in the following manner, which eventually led to his death:

5 But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him with an incurable and invisible blow. As soon as he stopped speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels, for which there was no relief, and with sharp internal tortures— 6 and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions. 7 Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to drive even faster. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body. 8 Thus he who only a little while before had thought in his superhuman arrogance that he could command the waves of the sea, and had imagined that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.

— 2 Maccabees 9:5-9, NRSV

Legacy

Jewish tradition

Antiochus IV ruled the Jews from 175 to 164 BC. He is remembered as a major villain and persecutor in the Jewish traditions associated with Hanukkah, including the books of Maccabees and the "Scroll of Antiochus".Rabbinical sources refer to him as הרשע harasha ("the wicked"); the Jewish Encyclopedia concluded that "[s]ince Jewish and heathen sources agree in their characterization of him, their portrayal is evidently correct", summarizing this portrayal as one of a cruel and vainglorious ruler who tried to force on all the peoples of his realm a Hellenic culture, "the true essence of which he can scarcely be said to have appreciated".Whether Antiochus's policy was directed at extermination of Judaism as a culture and a religion, though, is debatable on the grounds that his persecution was limited to Judea and Samaria (Jews in the diaspora were exempt), and that Antiochus was hardly an ideologically motivated Hellenizer. Erich S. Gruen suggests that, instead, he was driven more by pragmatics such as the need to gather income from Judea.

164BC (Dan 11:44); Antiochus IV - final years, and meets Death

164BC (Dan 11:44); Antiochus IV - final years, and meets Death
Dan 11.44; But news from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go out with great fury to destroy and devote many to destruction. And he shall pitch his palatial tents between the sea and the glorious holy mountain. Yet he shall come to his end, with none to help him.

_-_-_-_

Final years

King Mithridates I of Parthia took advantage of Antiochus' western problems and attacked from the east, seizing the city of Herat in 167 BC and disrupting the direct trade route to India, effectively splitting the Greek world in two.

Antiochus recognized the potential danger in the east but was unwilling to give up control of Judea. He sent a commander named Lysias to deal with the Maccabees, while the King himself led the main Seleucid army against the Parthians. Antiochus had initial success in his eastern campaign, including the reoccupation of Armenia, but he died suddenly of disease in 164 BC. [21]

According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he came the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.[22] According to the Second Book of Maccabees, he died in the following manner:

Punishment of Antiochus, engraving by Gustave Doré
But the all-seeing Lord, the God of
Israel, struck him an incurable and
unseen blow. As soon as he ceased
speaking he was seized with a pain in
his bowels for which there was no relief
and with sharp internal tortures - and
that very justly, for he had tortured the
bowels of others with many and strange
inflictions. Yet he did not in any way
stop his insolence, but was even more
filled with arrogance, breathing fire in
his rage against the Jews, and giving
orders to hasten the journey. And so it
came about that he fell out of his
chariot as it was rushing along, and the
fall was so hard as to torture every limb
of his body.[23]

167-29AD (Dan 12:1); Michael gets up, those in Book of Life are protected

167-29AD (Dan 12:1); Michael gets up, those in Book of Life are protected
Dan 12. 1a; At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time.

_-_-_-_--_-_-_-;--_-_

Michael is angel over virtue.

30AD (Dan 12:2-3); Christ Conquers Death

30AD (Dan 12:2-3); Christ Conquers Death
Dan 12:1b-3; But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book. And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Dan 12:4; *Daniel shut up and seal book / Knowledge will increase

Dan 12:4; *Daniel shut up and seal book / Knowledge will increase
Dan 12. 4; But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end. Many will run back and forth, and knowledge will be increased.”

 


One way this book was "sealed up" is in the organization of the chapters. 

The chronological order, historic dates, and chapter designations of the biblical book of Daniel are based on the following historical order of Kings of Babylon:

  • 589BC; Ch. 1-4 – Nebuchadnezzar
  • 553BC; Ch. 7 – Belshazzar (1st yr)
  • 550BC; Ch. 8 – Belshazzar (3rd yr)
  • 10/5/549BC; Ch. 5 – Belshazzar (day before end)
  • 546BC; Ch. 10 – Cyrus (3rd yr)
  • 529BC; Ch. 11-12 – Darius the Mede (1st yr)
  • 9/522BC; Ch. 9 – Darius I (1st yr)
  • after 522BC; Ch. 6 – Lions den

 

 

  • Chapter 6 (technically starts at 5:31) – after 522 BC (Daniel age 90+)

    While this section of Daniel’s book starts with the last verse of the previous chapter, this most popular story of Daniel doesn’t reference a young official being targeted by his rivals. This ending to Daniel’s book shows an elderly statesman who (even into his 90s) is a threat to the power of other servants of the king. 

     

Daniel 6 complete text (starting at 5:31)

31 Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old.

It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom one hundred twenty local governors, who should be throughout the whole kingdom; and over them three presidents, of whom Daniel was one; that these local governors might give account to them, and that the king should suffer no loss. Then this Daniel was distinguished above the presidents and the local governors, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.

Then the presidents and the local governors sought to find occasion against Daniel as touching the kingdom; but they could find no occasion or fault, because he was faithful. There wasn’t any error or fault found in him. Then these men said, “We won’t find any occasion against this Daniel, unless we find it against him concerning the law of his God.”

Then these presidents and local governors assembled together to the king, and said this to him, “King Darius, live forever! All the presidents of the kingdom, the deputies and the local governors, the counselors and the governors, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a strong decree, that whoever asks a petition of any god or man for thirty days, except of you, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions. Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it not be changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which doesn’t alter.” Therefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree.

10 When Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house (now his windows were open in his room toward Jerusalem) and he kneeled on his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did before. 11 Then these men assembled together, and found Daniel making petition and supplication before his God. 12 Then they came near, and spoke before the king concerning the king’s decree: “Haven’t you signed a decree that every man who makes a petition to any god or man within thirty days, except to you, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions?”

The king answered, “This thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which doesn’t alter.”

13 Then they answered and said before the king, “That Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Judah, doesn’t respect you, O king, nor the decree that you have signed, but makes his petition three times a day.” 14 Then the king, when he heard these words, was very displeased, and set his heart on Daniel to deliver him; and he labored until the going down of the sun to rescue him.

15 Then these men assembled together to the king, and said to the king, “Know, O king, that it is a law of the Medes and Persians, that no decree nor statute which the king establishes may be changed.”

16 Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions. The king spoke and said to Daniel, “Your God whom you serve continually, he will deliver you.”

17 A stone was brought, and laid on the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that nothing might be changed concerning Daniel. 18 Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting. No musical instruments were brought before him; and his sleep fled from him.

19 Then the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste to the den of lions. 20 When he came near to the den to Daniel, he cried with a troubled voice. The king spoke and said to Daniel, “Daniel, servant of the living God, is your God, whom you serve continually, able to deliver you from the lions?”

21 Then Daniel said to the king, “O king, live forever! 22 My God has sent his angel, and has shut the lions’ mouths, and they have not hurt me; because as before him innocence was found in me; and also before you, O king, I have done no harm.”

23 Then the king was exceedingly glad, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no kind of harm was found on him, because he had trusted in his God.

24 The king commanded, and they brought those men who had accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions, them, their children, and their wives; and the lions mauled them, and broke all their bones in pieces, before they came to the bottom of the den.

25 Then king Darius wrote to all the peoples, nations, and languages, who dwell in all the earth:

“Peace be multiplied to you.

26 “I make a decree that in all the dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel;

28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.

 

World English Bible (WEB)

by Public Domain. The name "World English Bible" is trademarked.

Reiteration of the risk of relying too heavily on the chapter and verse designation in our Bibles.

This chapter also exposes a great risk of the erroneous chapter and verse segmentation of our Bible. Daniel 5:31 reads, "Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old." If these chapters are in chronological order, this would not matter. However, if Daniel changed the order of kings referenced, and verse 31 of chapter 5 is supposed to be the first verse of chapter six... this would make more sense. Each king is referenced at the beginning of each chapter, except here at the end of chapter five. If this last verse (5:31) is a part of the story of the last night of Belshazzar's life... it would infer that Darius was the king that followed Belshazzar (which is incorrect). Proper comprehension of the organization of Daniel's chapters (and this verse) is vital to following the Gospel writer's instructions for the readers to understand." 

 

 




UP NEXT IN PART 2: Understanding the term(s) “abomination of desolation,” as well as how it fits into the context of the two Gospels which demand understanding of this phrase.

It’s important to never pretend to understand a piece of ancient text (which has been through multiple translations to get to our current language) without considering the phrase in context and understanding what the words actually mean/meant. Track along with this in Part 2 (coming soon), and in Part 3 we will line up the 500 years of prophesy alongside our archaeological knowledge which proves that the prophesy took place… as well as addressing those who say Daniel couldn’t have been written in the time period it claims.

Very fun stuff… come along for the ride.

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